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Tree of Common Wealth

 

Tree of Common Wealth

 

            This Booke, named the Tree of [Com̃on Wealth, was] made by Edmonde Dudlay Esquire, late com[missioner] . . . . Henrie the vijth, The same Edmonde at the . . . . [? time of writing] hereof beinge prisoner in the towre, in the first y[ere of the raigne of] King Henrie the viijth.

 

            Theffecte of this treatise consisteth in three speciall pointes,

                        wch breeflie followeth.   That is to saie

ffirste, the remembraunce of God and of the faithe of his holie church, wth the wch thing eủy xp̃en prince hath greate need to beginne.

Secondarilie, of some condic̃ons ( demeanors necessarie in eủy prince, both for his honor and for the suertie of his contynuaunce.

Thirdlie, of the Tree of com̃on wealth, wch toucheth people of eủy degree, of the Demeanors and condic̃ons they shoulde be of.

fforasmuch as eủy man is naturallie bounde not onlie moste hartelie to praie for the prosperous contynuaunce of his liegue Soueraigne Lorde, and thencrease of the com̃on wealth fhis natyve cuntrie,   But also to the vttermoste of his powre to doe all thinges that mighte further or sounde to thencrease and helpe of {2} the same,   And because I am an Englishe man, and was sometyme a poore srvaunte wth the Kinge of moste noble memorie Henrie the Seventh late Kinge of this moste noble Realme of Englande (whose Soule Jesu pardon) naturall father to my moste redoubted souraigne Lorde Kinge Henrie of that name the viijth, whome our Saviour Xp̃iste Jesu safelie guyde, wth the longe contynuaunce of vertue and honour.   For (our Lorde graunting) this is the Prince that shall renewe the com̃on wealth wthin this his realme, the wch this longe tyme hathe bene in sore decaie, whereof God helpinge, I moste . . . . [unleared and ign]oraunte in all mañer sciences and . . . . [after] the mañer of an vnlearned body will write . . . . [remem]brance, the wch if men be soe pleased maie . . . . [be called] the Tree of com̃on wealth.   But or [ere] the man̉ . . . . [of this] tree be spoken of, it shalbe somewhat shortlie . . . . [tou]ched,   First of the remembrace of god and of the faith of holie churche, wth the wch thinge eủy xp̃en Kinge hath most need to beginne: Secondarilie, a word or twaine of some condic̃ons or Demeanors necessarie in eủy prince aswell for his honor as for his assuraunce and sure safetie.   And thirdlie, then to speake of this tree of com̃on wealth, nor for that I will psume or thinke it . . . . [wor]thie to be seene or looked vpon by my said Souraigne Lorde, or by anie of his honourable Councell, or yet by anie other noble pson of this Realme, but by some other meane psons that will looke thereon for a lighte pastyme, humblie desiringe all the readers or hearers thereof not to impute anie article therein to my presumption or temerite,   But to take in gree [take kindly] and accepte my poore mynde an true intente, and to deeme, interprtate and sounde or expounde the same as they shall by theire discretions see cause, for I meane not by anie worde therein, that I knowe need of reformac̃on in any pticular pson, but onlie in my self, the most wretch of all wretches, or that I am of abilitie in anie condic̃on to councell or adủtise any lyvinge creature, myne {3} owne lief hath ben soe wicked and soe openlie knowne; but my full purpose, prayer and intente is, all things well ordered, maie soe contynue and encrease to the bettr, and if any thinge be amysse or out of order, eủy pson charitablie doe helpe to reforme where nede doth require, for whoe soe doth, he is a conceller and a frende, aboue all worldlie frendes, and full happie is he . . . . wiselie can kepe such a frende, and consi . . . . to the most worldlie ioye and comforte of . . . . inhabitants of this realme of Englande; I . . . . that my said Souaigne Lorde in plaine proof . . . . he beginneth his most noble raigne wth the remembraunce of god, Hath fullie determyned himself not onlie to reforme all such thinges as in tymes past hath ben misordered and abused wthin his realme, But also to his greatest merite to restore his subjects of diủse wrongs and iniuries, And oủ that as a childe obediente and willinge the comforte and relief of the Soule of his father, entendeth to see the will of his father and Kinge to be trulie pformed, to his mervelous greate meede and honr, wch seldome hath bene seen wthin this his realme,   But sure maye his grace be, he dealeth not soe charitablie & honorablie for his said father, but that god will cause noble issue and successors to do as well and as lovinglie for him, and by this his doinge god will encrease his grace singulerlie to set his affecc̃on in his love and honour, as to a  xp̃en prince necessarie it belongeth, And ouer this shall order himself wth his great grace to be that Catholike Kinge, that shall not only supporte and maintaine his church, and the true faith thereof in all rightes, as farre as him lieth, But also to see that such as he shall promote and sette in Christs church, specialle wthin this his realme, be both Connynge [learned] and vertuous, and in especiall to be vertuous, for wthout that connynge profiteth but little to the honor of Christs church,   And for the {4} more pte such as are promoted, and set in ye church of Christe and speciallie in the high Dignitie thereof for any mañer of affecc̃on,   Be it for bloude, s̉vice or . . . . cause, wthout there be wthall vertuousness . . . .  able to rule theire church, shall doe . . . . more harme then good, and p̉ilous it is, and . . . . to be eschewed, to promote anie man that . . . . [will not l]abor therefore, and speciallie such as will adventure the daunger of Symonie to haue promocc̃on, They shall never doe good in theire cures, and be but the destroyers of the church of Christe.   And it is noe harme to beware of the promotinge of folke at the spĩall labor or desire of anie pson, be he of the Councell or the Kings servaunte, for els there shalbe often and many tymes set in Christes churche full vnhable men for thonlie profit or affecc̃on of the Labourers.   And it is not fytting or convenient to advaunce to promoc̃on speciallie anie defamed [sic. ? deformed] psones of theire bodies, nor noe man to haue diủse promoc̃ons wth cure, except greate cause require it;   and when they are promoted, it were a meritorious deede, to sende them home to theire cures, and speciallie the plates and such others as haue great cures, wthout theire psence maie not be forborne of the Kings psone, for his great honor or for the com̃on wealth of this realme, or els they ought to be enforced to kepe home for the dischardge of the Kings conscience & theires, although theire apetite were to the contrary.   This should be a good deede;   And moreoủ that none of them be in anie temporall Offices, nor executors thereof, for thereby is most com̃onlie destroied the Church and the Office.   Also it were a gratious and a noble arte, that the Church of Englande were restored to theire free elecc̃on after tholde man̉ and not to be letted thereof by the meane of you, Soủaigne Lorde, nor by meanes of anie of yor subiects, as far forth as ye maie helpe it.   And to foresee that no comforte be given to any pson that labor any such to the contrarie, for therein shall yor highnes be apposed [opposed] by diủse waies, {5} whereof the verie truth shall not appere vnto you, for they will tell you yor Lr̃es shalbe but a curteous Lr̃e of recommendac̃on.   But consider you well yor request to any of yor subiects is a streight [strict] com̃aundemt.   Also for thonor of god let yor grace refraine yor self from ye appropac̃on of Benefices, or to vniate [unite] anie house of religion to another, for if this doe contynue it shall by all likelihood distroye thonor of the church of Englande.   Also yor progenitors vsed much to write to theire subiectes, spĩall and temporall, for to haue the disposic̃ons of yeire pmoc̃ons, wch was a greate discourage for clarkes, and god be thanked, theire own promoc̃ons were honorable and sufficient for their owne Chaplaines and for the good encrease of vertue amongste the Clergies of your realme.   It shalbe also a great furtheraunce to haue in yor remembraunce to ptecte & also to comforte yor vniủsities, and also the Students therein, and spĩally Divines, for they decaye fast, for they be needefull for certaine condic̃ons to demeanors to eủy noble prince, righte necessarie as well for his honor as suertie.   My dailie prayer shalbe during my shorte lief for that thinge wch I doubte not yor noble grace will remember a thousand tymes better then I can consider, And that is, that yor grace will trulie kepe and observe all leagues and pmyses to outwarde princes and straungers made by you, or to yor owne subiects pmised, and all such leagues and pmyses to be made by good advise and delibac̃on, and when they are made, firmelie to holde them, though they shoulde be to yor losse, for all worldlie losses, and speciallie in a prince, honor and credence is the moste.   And in ye reverence of god, somewhat beware of daungerous sportes for casualties that might fall, and the rather for that in yor onlie pson dependeth the whole wealth and honor of this yor realme.   And sure I am yor grace will vse, as eủ you haue vsed, to let as fewe idle words and speciallie of slaunder to passe yor mouth as ye maie, nor to giue yor eares nor yor eyne over often to fantasies, in the wch standeth {6} but vanities, nor to be light of credence, and ye of yor greate wisdome in all welthie causes to be councelled of good & wise men, and alwaie to followe the councell of good men, for they that dreade not god, seldome give good councell; and seldome it p’fiteth a Prince to give confidence to younge Councell, for experience is one fo the chief p’tes of Councell.   But let neủ xp̃en prince followe the councell of cruell men, or covetous men, for the cruell Councellors ever pvoke the ire of god, the covetous Councellors shall leese [lose] the hartes of the Subjects.   The cruell councellors will shewe theire Soủaigne shall instructe soủaigne [sic] that his suretie resteth in crueltie, And such Councell was there given to Kinge Saule in the begynninge of his raigne; But he being at that tyme the childe of god, refused vtterlie to revenge his owne quarells by crueltie, because he came into his realm peaceablie.   The covetous Councellors will shewe their Soủaigne his suretie standeth much in plentie of Tresour, But both theise Councellors are but fallible fantasies, for the p’fitte of eu’ie xpen Prince dependeth in the grace of god, wch is wonne by m’eye and lib’allitie.   The wroth of almightie god is gotten by crueltie and covetousnes, And therefore it is moste necessarie that a xp̃en Kinge haue the love & the feare of god before his eyes, by whome all things [sic. Kinges] doe raigne; for the Devill, the Worlde and the fleshe will contynuallie fight and make battell against all mankinde, and padventure more fervently against a Prince than a poore man.   The Devill also will bringe the prince of this worlde to his owne ppertie if he can, wch is to followe rigor and crueltie, for soe doth he wthout mercy or pittie.   The worlde will induce them to followe his ppertie, wch is to set all theire felicitie in worldlie Treasour, and therein to be insatiable, and not force [careful] of the meanes howe it shalbe had.   The fleshe, if he maie by anie meanes, would make princes to followe his beastlie appetite, for that is the beaste of all beastes, if his frailtie be followed.   But for a memoriall to eschewe theise {7} three p̉ilous enemyes, let eủy xp̃en Kinge and prince looke on the ende of them that haue bene oủcome or vanquished by theise three enemyes or anie of them.   Let the Kinges of this realme seeke noe further, but resorte to theire own progenytors or pdecessors Kings of the same.   For the firste, whoe was more rigorous or cruell than Harolde, somtyme Kinge of this realme?   Verely nẻu none.   What was his conclusion?   A shorte raigne and a cruell.   Also the late King Richarde the Thirde followed him in condic̃on, and therefore his raigne and ende was after the same.   For the Seconde, what Prince of this realme or any realme was more worthe, then King Henrie the Thirde?   Never none.  He was soe insatiable that he lost thereby all the hartes of his subiects, insomuch that all his realme reioyced in his death: padventure of yt appetite hath there bene some other of late time & was in mañer wthout faulte, savinge only that.   But howe such a Kinge shall haue the lovinge hartes of his subiects, late experience may plainelie shewe it.   For the Thirde, whoe lesse regarded the love of god in vsinge the failtie of the fleshe then Kinge Richard the Seconde; wch was goodlie in pson, & right wise and eloquent, for the wch he died not all only wthout issue of his body to succeede after him,   But what inordynate warre and trowble haue bene wthin this realme since his death for the Succession thereof,   The matter appeth & sheweth the cause of his fleshe.   It is thought he was both cruell and covetous, and by his ende it should soe appe, for he had a marvelous cruell death; and when he was in his high prosperitie, his subiects in comparison, both nobles and other, vtterlie forsook him, and suffred another havinge noe Title to subdue him.   Also it is not like that ye punishmt that the late Kinge of noble memorie King Edwaqrde the fowrth had in the faire florishing issue of his bodye, his sonnes I doe meane, much for lovinge of his fleshlie appetite.   Wherefore our Lord Jesu saue and kepe all xp̃en princes, and moste specially or {8} moste dreade and naturall Soủaigne Lorde, from theise three greate enemyes, and to fixe & stablishe him in other three noble vertues, contrarie to theise three condic̃ons, and that in steede of rigor and crueltie his maie be piteous and mercifull; and in the steede of inordynate desire to theise worldlie goodes, he maie be liberall and plenteous, and in the steede of the appetite of fleshlie desire, he may be cleane to his owne spouse and Quene, wch is the first order of chastitie.   What then shall be his conclusion and reward?   Theise at the least: for keeping of his body cleane and chaste to his wife & Quene, god shall send him plentie of faire yssue, wch shall succede him in honor and vertue, And over that shall crowne him in heaven wth the holie and blessed confessor St. Edwarde.   And for that he will be contente wth his owne righte, and not wronge or oppresse his subiects, but be to them merciable, liberall and plenteous as reason shall require, god will reward him not only wth sufficientlie plentie of worldlie riches, but also wth the lovinge hartes of his Subiects, and they to serve and obay him wth loving dreade, wch is the pfit [perfect] and sure bonde of obedience.   And oủ that god shall crowne him, wth Charles ye greate Kinge, wch was faithfull, iuste and liberall in all his actes and livinge.   And for that he is mercifull and plenteous, god himself will punishe his enemyes, pease sorer that he himself woulde, or at the leaste will reduce them to be his true subiects and servauntes.   Over that shall crowne him wth thollie Kinge and Prophet David, to whome god said “I haue found a man after myne owne harte.”   Inueni hominem s’c’d’m cor meum.

            And nowe to speake of the Tree of com̃on wealth.   It is that thinge, for the wch all true englishmen haue greate neede to praie to god, that our Lorde and Kinge will thereon haue a singuler regarde and favor, for principallie by god and him yt must be holpen.   And therefore god hath ordayned him to be our Kinge, and thereto is eủy Kinge bounde, for that is his chardge.   For as {9} the subiectes are bounde to theire prince of their allegiaunce, to loue, dreade, serue and obey him, or else to be punished by him, as straightlie is the Prince bounde to god to maintaine and supporte, as farre as in him or lieth, the com̃on wealth of his subiectes.   And all they abide and see the punishment of god, for though the people be Subiectes to theire Kinge, yet they be the people of god, And god hath ordained theire Prince to protecte them, and they to obey theire Prince.   The com̃on wealth of this realme, or of the subiectes or inhabitants thereof, maye be resembled to a faire and a greate mightie tree, growing in a faire feilde or pasture, vnder the shadowe or Coverte whereof all the beasts, both the fatte and the leane, are protected and comforted frõ heate and colde as the tyme requireth; Even so all the Subiectes o that realme where this tree of com̃on wealth doth surelie growe, be thereby holpen and relieved from the highest degree to the lowest.   But for a troth this tree will not longe stande or growe vprighte in this realme or in anie other wthout diủse stronge roots and sure fastened in the grounde.   The principall and chiefe roote of this tree in eủy xp̃en realme must be the love of god, And the love of god is nothing els, but to knowe him and gladlie to obserue his lawes and com̃aundmte as his true and faithfull people.   Ye will say pcase the Bisshops and they of the spiritualitie haue speciall chardge of this roote, and not the Prince.   Yes, verelie, the Prince is the grounde out of the wch this roote must chieflie growe, for that it is he that doth appointe and make the Bisshops.   And if the Prince in theise roomes ordaine vertuous men, this roote will kepe.   And if he ordaine thereto vicious men or negligent bodies, yt will wyther and decaie, And though the Bisshops would be negligente and not punishe the mysdoers in theire Dioces, yet let the Prince warne them thereof, And if there be anie sturdie or obstinate psons in his realme, that will frowardlie disobey theire ordinarie in the cause of god, the Prince {10} must be put to his mightie hande, to help to the reformac̃on thereof.   And if there be, whome doth the Prince then assist?   The Bisshops, Curates or preachers?   Forsooth none of them.   He assisteth his maker and redemer, of whome he hath all his powre and auethoritie.   And such as bene knowne for open synners wthin this realme, as open murtherers, adulterers, blasphemers, extorcioners, and oppressors of his subiects, let not the Prince be famyliar wth them, nor shewe vnto them his loving countenaunce, but let them be rather by themselues alone, that some man maie knowe the cause whie.   And that shall not cuase them only to amende, pease, rather then all the monic̃̃ons of theire Curats or Ordenaries,   But also it shall cause other to beware of like offences, to the greate merit of the prince.   Then the roote of the lawe of god, wch is to knowe him wth good workes, whthin this realme must highlie growe, by our Soũaigne Lord and out of him.   Yet for the sure and pfit fastening of this roote in the Kinge [one thinge] is verie necessarie and that is :  That all his subiects spirituall and temporall may see in theire Prince, that he himself setteth his principall delight and affecc̃on in the lawe of god, keping his lawes and com̃aundemts.   Howe much shall that enforce and incourage the Bisshops and other of the Spũaltie to be the vary lanthornes of light, and to shewe good examples to the temporalitie, and they to followe the same.   And how much shame or rebuke should it be to all those that woulde vse the contrarie.   And then is this principall roote the love of god soe surelie fastened in soe noble and perfit grounde rooted, that wth the grace of god he shall doe his devor to beare vp this tree of com̃̃on wealth in this realme of england foreủ.   Besides this principall roote, this tree surelie to be borne vp, must haue fowre other rootes,  That is to saie: Justice, truth, concorde, and peace.   First he must haue the roote of Justice, wthout the wch this tree of com̃̃on wealth maie not continue.   And this roote of Justice must needes come of our {11} Soủaigne Lordes self, for thole [the whole] aucthorities thereof is given to him by god to mynister by himself or his deputie by his subiectes; and though it be suffred or pmitted, that a prince may make and ordaine his deputie in eủy pte of his ralme to mynister Justice, As his Chauncelor, his Justics of both the benches, & other speciall Com̃yssioners in eủy Countie and sheire,, yet the chief chardge is his owne.   Wherefore for the honor of god let it be foresene that his grace may make his Justices to be well learned men, and of good conscience speciallie, for else they wilbe corrupted wth meede or affecc̃on, that they shall mynister to his Subiects greate wronges and Synister Justice vnder the coulor of Justice, and longe padventure ere it should be knowne to ye prince, And also there would be a straighte chardg given to the Chauncelor to appointe in eủy cuntry and sheire wisemen, and speciallie good men, & such as will deale indifferentlie betwene the Subiects,  And in anie wise not to put in anie aucthoritie those wch are greate bearers of matters, And when the Judges resorte vnto the Kings Grace, Let him give them a greate chardge to mynister Justice trulie & indifferentlie vpon paine of his high and greate displeasure, besides theire daunger of theire conscience, and yet therwthall by him they muste be informed and put in courage soe to doe, And that they let not for feare nor displeasure of any of his own srvauntes or Coucellors to doe true Justice, nor for feare of any great pson in his realme; for that they doe is done by his aucthoritie, and not by theire owne, And thus to doe they shall haue greate meede, for wthout doubte, feare is a greate ympedyment of Justice amongs the Judges and Justices.   Also of necessitie the Prince muste beare & supporte them in al lthe mynistering and executinge of Justice, and aswell against the nobles as other, for els it will not be in theire powres to doe {12} theire true duties.   Also it were a good deede to com̃aunde the privy Councell & Secretarie that noe Lr̃es passe them in stopping of Justice, for by such Lr̃es oftentymes Justice is greatlie distrowbled and letted, and all vnder ye color of petic̃on by speciall labor and affecc̃on.   Also a singuler furtheraunce to good indifferente Justice to be had, and to the conscience of the Kinge, a greate dischardge shalbe to appoite good Sherifs and such as will not be affectionate to bribors, for in them lyeth much to make or to marre the conclusion of verie Justice, and that there be had a speciall rule to punyshe piured psons.   Periurie is the vtt̉most myschief of all good right and Justice, But yet must the Prince punishe and oppresse all maintayners and ymbracers, and that muste be his owne acte, for it is done most com̃onlie by men of greate powre and aucthoritie.   And furthermore, besides all com̃on orderinge of Justice to be done and mynistered wthin this realme, be it betwene the Kinge and his Subiectes, or betwene subiect and subiecte, His grace himself must haue a singuler zeale and regarde to protecte and defende his poore subiects that they be not oppressed by greate men and their supiors, For out of doubte if his his grace looke not mervelouslie therevnto, the poore people of his Realme shalbe oppressed wth theire Lr̃es, And oftentymes [by] his servauntes by coulor of his service, and speciallie in this roote of Justice.   Let it not be seene that a Prince himself for anie cause of his owne inforce or oppresse anie of his Subiects, by imprisonmt or sinister vexac̃on, by privie Seale or Lr̃es missives, or otherwise by anie of his pticuler Councelors, but to drawe them, or intreate them by due order of his lawes; for though the matter be never soe true that they are called for, and though theire paine & punishmente should be sorer by due order of the lawe, yet will they murmure and grudge because they are called by waie extraordynarie, wherefore the moste honourable and sure waie for the Prince to haue his right of his subiects, or to {13} punishe them for theire offence, shalbe by the due order and course of his lawes : And let the subiects never be letted nor interrupted by his wrytinge, tokens, messages or com̃aundemts to his Judges or other officers to haue the streight course of his lawes by Travers, pcesse, Trialls, Judgmts, stayinge of Lyverie, or otherwise : yet padventure oftentymes the Prince shall haue Councelors and srvauntes that in his owne causes will doe further then conscience requireth, or further then himself woulde should be done oftentymes, to win a spĩall thanke of the Kinge, and sometyme for their pper advauntage, and sometyme for revenging of their owne grudges or malice, that they doe the ptie wronge, Let theise srvaunts or Councilors take heede, for the god of punishmt dyeth not.   And thus the grace of xp̃iste Jesu and the Kinge of the Realme helpe and supporte the roote of Justice.   The wch beinge thus rooted in himself, shall surelye holde and staie thone quarter of this tree of com̃on wealth wthin this realm.   The Seconde of theise fowre rootes is the roote of truth or fidelitie wthout wch roote the tree of com̃on wealth maie in nowise be sustayned or kepte vpright; it is soe necessarie a thinge, that there is neyther realme, cittie, companie, fellowship, or pticuler pson that can or may continue in honor or honestie wthout yt.   In so much the Paynims, the Gentiles, Turkes & Sarrisens, love truth and kepe yt for theire treasor.   And ye Devill, wch is the aucthor and father of all falsehoode and their Mr and Lorde.   Then much more ought we to kepe truth we xp̃en men to whom Christe Jesu is the verie Mr and Leader, wch is very truth himself, and from whome very truth pceedeth.   Truth is none other thinge but a man to be true and faithfull in all his promyses, covenants and wordes,   And the higher in honor is the ptie, the more is theire shame and rebuke to be proved vntrue.   If there be not truth what avayleth enterchaunge of marchandizes; what avayleth citties ad Townes to be builded; if there be not troth, what avayleth {14} fraternyties & fellowships to be made; and for the more pte if there be noe truth what avayleth lawes or ordynaunces to be made, or to ordaine pliamts, or courtes to be kepte; if there be noe troth what avayleth men to haue srvaunts; if there be noe truth what availeth a Kinge to haue subiects, and soe finallie, where is noe truth can be neither honor nor goodnes.   Wher emust this roote fasten himself?   Specially in a Kinge, and in all his true subiects, but chieflie in himself, for in him it is moste requisite for his high honor and dignitie,   And he must be a greate occasioner and helper that it fasten in his Subiects.   The verie sure waie muste be this, to punishe false men, and to advaunce and promote true men,  That is the beste waie next to the grace of god, to fasten truth in men, and men in truth; & whoe can thus doe?   None earthlie in effecte amongst us, but or Prince and Kinge, And when a Kinge or a prince in this realme doth promote false men and subtile, and leaveth true men, in that realme or region falshoode must needes encrease, and troth decaie,   And this tree of com̃on wealth will in noe wise there stande or growe.   But nowe Englishmen amongs whome this tree of com̃on wealth is well nere vtterlie vaded and deade, ye haue a prince a prince & Kinge in whome was neủ spotte or blemishe of vntroth knowne or founde,   The wch greate vertue and truth, or lord for his passion dailie in him encrease wth pfit contynaunce therein.   And yt all that nobles of this realme may followe him in the same, and soe eủ to followe and take example one of another from the highest to the lowest subiecte in his realme, Then howe glad shall eủy noble man be of the companie of thoehter, & one will trust and love another; what frendship & confidence will then be betwene man & man, from the highest degree to the lowest; how kindlie and lovinglie will servaunts & crafts men buy and sell togithers, & exchaunge and bargaine one thinge for another.   Howe diligentlie and busilie will the artificers and husbandmen occupie theire labor & busines, and {15} howe well contente will men be from the highest degre to the lowest to encrese theire howsholds in srvaunts and labourers, whereby all our idle people & vagabounds shalbe set on worke : and oủ all this howe glad shall straung̉s and people of outward nations be to deale and meddle with the com̃odities of this realme,   And soe this roote of truth and fidelitie shall royallie & mightilie supporte and beare vprighte ye seconde quarter of this noble tre of com̃on wealth.   The Thirde roote of the fowre rootes is the roote of concorde or vnitie.   This roote [is] much necessarie to helpe this tree com̃on wealth, for where Discorde and division is, it will be harde & almost impossible to haue this tree encrease & continue, for discorde bringeth in considerac̃on of conspiracie and retenc̃on, wch for the more pte ingendreth murther, extorc̃on and Riot, and oftentimes Rebellion, of whome for a suertie cometh Idlenes the very mother of all vice, both in man and wooman, noble and vnnoble, and the lyneall grandam of povertie and myserie, and the deadlie enemy to this tree of com̃on wealth.   This roote of concorde is none other thinge but a good agreemt & conformytie amongs the people of thinhabitants of the Realme, Cittie, Towne, or fellowship, and eủy man to be contented to doe his dutie in the office, roome, or condic̃on that he is set in, and not to maligne or disdaine anie other.   Where must this noble and necessarie roote beginne, to sustaine him, or to growe?   For a troth in our Soveraigne Lord most principall, and then in all his subiects, spĩall and tempall, noblest and other.   Thus he must growe and fasten in our Soveraigne Lord, when he seeth Justice mynistred to his subiects trulie and indifferentlie as well to the poore as to the riche, and favor and charish goodmen & punish the evill.   And in causes touching himself to ministr his Justice discretly medled with mercy, for els his Justice will be sore, that it will oftentymes appe to be crueltie rather then Justice;   And I suppose there is noe xp̃en Kinge hath more nee soe to doe, then {16} our Prince & Soủaigne Lord, consideringe the greate nomber of penall lawes & statutes made in his realme, for the hard and straight punishmt of his Subiects.   Also the Prince muste speciallie see the nobles of his realme be not at variaunce one wth another, otherwhiles by complaints to himself or suynge his lawes; but in anie wise suffer not them to reveng theire own quarells, old or newe, by force or by violence; for if men be at theire owne libties theirein, beware the Prince in a while.   Also he must see that his subiects of the tempalitie for pviledge of libties,   It were a great helpe to this noble roote of concorde, to haue it stablished and reformed.   And noe man can doe it but the Prince, wherefore all the lawde should be his, and by likelihoode a great merite towards god,   And when his grace seeth Justice thus mynistered & suffereth not cruel debats or oppressioñ amongs his subiects, then is this roote of concorde Royallie stablished by him.   And for the comforte of this roote of concorde mightelie to beare this tree of com̃on welth, the prince had nede to see his officers, pveyors and takers to paye his subiects trulie accordinge to the good ordynaunces thereof made, and not tu vse theire office to the contrarie,   And therewthall to kepe his honorable houshold in plenteous manner;   and to com̃aunde and constraine the nobles of his realme, both spũall and temporall, to keepe good hospitallitie, and that shall be both for him and his realme honor and suertie :   and it were time it were holpen, for it is in this realme sore decaied, and shall never encrease but by the president of the prince and nobles of the Realme; and then will eủy man after his degree follow the same; but then must srvaunts haue competent wages and clothing, wth true payment of the same, soe as they shall not neede to be Theives, Bribors, pollers [cheaters] or extorc̃oners,   And for the studie, paine, dilligence and labor that the Prince thus {17} taketh for his subiects to kepe them in quietnes and suertie, they must, from the highest degree to the loweste, owe vnto him theire true fidellitie & allegiaunce, honor and reverence, and to be obedient to all his Royall and lawfull com̃aundemts and pecepts,   And to be redie and dilligente to the vttermost of their powres wth bodie and goodes in the reskewe of him and of his Realme, and to yelde and paie vnto him trulie all rights revenues and casualties, wthout fraud or Coven :   And this done, this roote of concorde is well fixed betwene the prince & his subiects.   Yet must this roote stretch further, as betwene subiecte and subiecte,   That is, all the Clergie of this realme, in the wch are contayned Archbisshops, Bisshops, Abbots, Priors, Archeacons, and Deanes, and all preists, religious and seclars, devoutlie to praie for the psperie of our soủaigne lord, and for good health and speede of all his subiects aswell nobles as other, eủy man well to prosp and speede in his lawfull busynes.   And besides theire prayers to shewe themselves to be true priests of Christs chruch aswell in theire owne vertuous lyvinge, as shewinge and preachinge the worde of god trulie and plainelie to the temporall subiects, and boldlie and straightlie to punishe synne accordinge to theire aucthoritie and dutie, and therewth to kepe all points and ceremonies belonging to their profession, and employ theire pfits and revenues of theire benefics as they by theire own lawe be bounde to doe,—that is, one pte thereof for theire own lyvinge in good houshold and hospitallitie,   The seconde in deedes of Charitie and alms,   And the thirde pte thereof for the repac̃on and building of theire churches and manc̃ons.   But where is the pte they must kepe or saue for mariage of their kinssfolke, or to buy lands to leave them inheritors, or Treasors padventure to a worse purpose, if they appropr [sic] anie pte of the revenues or profits of anie theire spũall liveloode to anie of theise purposes.   I report me to themselves what case they stoode in, wch I truste they will eschewe, and when theire {18} apparell and gesture is grave, according to theire estates & the degree that they be of, their honor or fame thereby is nothing appared.   And it is not vnfitting that there were a plain diversitie betwene theire srvaunts, and the srvaunts of other temporall men, aswell in the honestie of theire demeanor as in ye sadness of theire vestures,   And thus the roote of concorde is fastened right well in the Clergie of this Realme.   And as to the sure fasteninge thereof in all the Chevalrie of this realme, wherein be intended all Dukes, Erles, Barons, Knights, Esquires, and other gentlemen by office or auchtoritie :    They had neede to liue in a good conformitie, that is to saie, eủy after the honr and degree that god and his prince hath called him to, and after that pte or porc̃on to leade his lief, and not to maligne or evny his supiors, nor disdaine or set at nought his inferiors,   But eủy man to knowe other wth his dutie, and to help and guide them as his powre maie extende; nor intende noe murther nor myschevous deede, nor be oppressors or distroyers of theire neighbours or tenaunts, nor be anie bearers or Supporters of false quarrells, or matters of evill disposed psons; nor be the doers or thinducers of piury or of falshoode, nor be the takers of srvice, or reteynors of facers [impudent boasters, bullies] or of idle losells [rascals, worthless fellows] ne of subtile, or of theire labour,   But be gentle and curteous in words and deeds, both sober and honest in demeanor and countenaunce, and be true and stedfaste in all words and promises to the rich and poore, and be the makers of endes and lovdaies [days appointed for the settlement of differences by arbitration] charitablie betwene neighbours and neighbors, frendes and frendes; be the helpers and relievers of poore Tenaunts and also be the maintain̉s and supporters of all poore folkes in good causes & matters, and speciallie of widowes and orphanes,   And also that they be true payers for that wch they shall take of theire neighbours and Tenaunts, & also be the punishers of Murtherers, robbers & theeves, and of all other {19} ill disposed people, be it theire owne srvaunts or other; and then shall they be meete and able to do theire prince srvice, bothe noble & honorable, and to defende the church & Comynalitie; for be ye sure it is not honorable bloude, and greate possessions, or rich apparel, that maketh the man honorable, himself being of unhonorable condic’ons; and the more honorable in bloode that he is, the more noble in condic̃ons ought he to be, and the more shame and dishonor it is to him to be the contrarie,   And therefore ye noble men, for the bettr contynuaunce of yor bloode in honor, set yor childrẽ in youth, that betymes, to learninge, vertue and conninge [knowledge], and at the leaste bringe them vp in honor and vertue; for verelie, I feare me, the noble men and gentlemen of Englande b the worst brought vp for the more pte of any Realme in xp̃endome, and therefore the children of poore men and meane folkes are promoted to the promoc̃on and aucthoritie that the children of noble bloud should haue if they were meete therefore,   And thus shall concorde be noblie rooted in the Chevalry of this realme.   Yet it is requisite that this roote also be well rooted in the Comynaltie of this realm, for there resteth the greate nomber; therein be all ye merchants, Craftes men and artificers, laborers, franklins [freeholders] grasiers, farmers, tyllers, and other generallie the people of this realme.   Theise folkes maie not murmur nor grudge to liue in labor and paine, and the most pte of theire tyme wth the sweat of theire face,   Let not them pesume aboue theire owne degree, nor let anie of them presume or counterfet the state of his better, nor let them in anie wise exceede in theire apparell and dyet,   But to vse them as theire expencs will surelie serve them.   Let theise folkes remember theire rents and paymts that they must make, and rather pinch theire Bellie then to sell theire necessarie, and let them beware of pollers, pillars [cheaters, extortioners] and of Westm̉ hall, or else theire purse wilbe thynne.   To Sessions and assizes make they not haste, {20} except that neede enforce them.   Let them sequester themselves from costlie Courts, leaste care be their carroll when their silver is spente;   cloath not themselves in lyverie of Lords, yet bettr weare the lyverie of their wyves.   And good it were not to vse any vlawfull game,   The taủnes and alehouses are not to theise folkes much agreeable.   If theie vse hawking and hunting, at length they will saie fye on their wynnings :   And the chief of theis folkes, as the subtanciall merchants, the welthie grasiers and farmrs, let them not vse nor covet over great lucor [lucre] and be to you unkinde that are lesser than they, but be they vnto their vnderlinges loving and charitable, and destroy them not wth yor accompt wares and prises excessive, from daie to daie given, and not oủ hastelie caste them in prison for breaking of a daie or twoe :   or take a greate gaine for a long daie to be given, or to deliủ them yor mony to be the losse, and you to haue the profit and yor mony also :   and beware of vsurie both plaine and colored, for to god both be indifferentlie knowne.   Beware of deceipts of buyinge and selling, and amende not yor ware wth subtiltie and crafte, wth oathes and lies sweetlie forged, for if yor gaines be reasonable, the better it will abide.   Make not yor ware to rise or to fall by yor assemblie shortlie at a pointe, for that is but a Crafte the poore people to polle; and consider howe yor thrifte gen̉allie encreaseth by lending of wares to great men for daies, though yor prices you knowe best yorselves, but secretlie to yor conscience, as a scraping it is :   And though you lefte the purchasing of lands, and sometimes buildinge and feasting, till yor riches were greatlie grounded, it forced not much.   Yee meane occupiers and begynners, make not yor b̉gaines, bot soe as ye be able to paie, leaste Westm̉, St Katherines [probably some court for the recovery of debts] or yor boulted dores, be your reckoning place, and then yor credence [credit] for eủ is gone.   And mynish not yor stockes for yor wives pleasure, though shee behigh [promise, profess to] yow to love you.   All the [? ye] craftesmen and {21} artificers, worke dilligentlie and trulie ;   let not slouth guide you, neither earlie nor late.   Disdaine not to learne of men that haue coninge [knowledge], Straungers though they be.   If yor worke and yor stuffe be substanciall and true, yor customers will not faile you.   Yor bellies and yor backs are enemyes to yor thrifte :   but temperaunce will helpe all.   Ye srving men and srvaunts, be true and dilligent to yor masters, exceede not yor wages in gamyng and expences.   Be not loath to learne, least ye be longe lewde [ignorant].   Thinke yor master not to be bad, leaste you chaunge for the worse.   All ye laborers, be not wearie of yor sweate ;   it beseemeth you best.   Let not Idlenes lead you into the daungr of Indigence;   And thus the roote of concorde shalbe surelie roote in the Com̃ynaltie of this realme,    And this roote of concorde beinge principallie fastened in our soủaigne Lorde, and then in the Clergie, Chevalrie and cõialtie, shalbe well able to sustaine and beare vp this quarter or pte of this noble tree of Com̃on wealth.  Yet hath this tree greate neede to haue the fowrth roote of peace.   By this vnderstande good vnitie and peace betwene our Soverayne Lorde and his realme, and other outwarde princes and realmes, the wch is verie necessarie roote for the tre of com̃on wealth in eủy region and cuntrie;   for though there be neủ soe good concord and vnitie among themselues, if they be sore trowbled and vexed by warres wth outward ptes, yet it wilbe a great ympedymt to this tree of com̃on wealth, and speciallie in this realme of Englande, consideringe (lawded be god) that the com̃odities of this noble realme be soe noble, and wth that soe plenteous, yt they canot be spended or all employed wthin the same, but necessarilie there muste be entercourse betwene this realme and outward ptes for the vtteraunce thereof, and speciallie for the wooll and cloth, Tynne and Leade, fell and hide, besides diủs other com̃odities that doth greate ease to the subiects.   Howe be it I feare that the best com̃odities of this realme be soe much appared [deteriorated] by subtiltie and falshoode, that they be not {22} reputed, esteemed, or soe much made of as they haue bene.   First, the woolls of this realme be not soe well ordered in the growers handes as they haue bene, but for lacke of good order they be much impared in fynenes, that when it com̃eth to the handes of the merchants, by them and theire packers it is subtillie appared and altered.   In likewise the clothes [cloths] of this realme, what by vntrue making, and what by the subtill demeanor in the handes of thadventurers and merchants, they be little sett by in all outward ptes, not onlie to the greate preiudice of the kinge and his subiects, but alsoe to the infamy and rebuke of people of this realme,   I doubte me there is like crafte and subtiltie vsed in leade and other com̃odities of this realme.   But I praie god it maye be put in the minde of our Souerayne Lorde to com̃aunde his Councell, wth such wise and expert men as they will call vnto them, to take some studie and paine for the reformac̃on hereof, and that betymes, least other cuntries take all the practice of or com̃odities from vs, and then pcase it will be past remedie.   And for reformac̃on hereof the reward of or Soủayne Lord shalbe merit honor and profit.   Howe great merit shall it be to you to reduce those falsenes to truthes !   Howe much shalbe yor honor that by yor studie and pollicy the com̃odities of yor realme shalbe in as good reputac̃on as they haue bene in olde time !   What larg pfits and customes by reason hereof and otherwise shall growe to the kinge by greate entercourse that will ensue therebie !   Also after this manner that hath been vsed, the com̃odities of other realmes are right for vs, and soe to haue entercourse and interchaunge the one wth thother, wch shalbe righte harde to be vsed and exercised profitablie wthout the roote of outward peace.   This outward peace is verie necessarie, for warre is a marvelous greate consum̉ of treasor and riches; for I suppose a right greate treasor is soone spent in a sharpe warre; therefore let eủy man beware what councell he giveth to his Soủaigne to enter or to begynne warre, or in anie {23} wise to enter into it.   And the begynninge seemeth a greate pleasure, but the waie is verie narrowe to come honorablie out thereof, and then oftentimes full painefull,   Besides that, it is verie daungerous for the soule and the bodie.   And this roote of peace muste needes be rooted in the pson of or prince, and by his meanes, that is to saie by such good and sure liegue, amities and noble alliaunces, as his grace, by the advise of his honorable councell, will make wth outward princes.   And when they pceave the wisedome, discrec̃on, aucthoritie and courage that god hath put in his noble pson, they will the more gladlie offer him honorable peace, and not the worse though in time of peace he make good and sure preparac̃ons for warre; and this roote of peace, soe well radicated in his most royall psone, shall well and sufficientlie beare and upholde the fowrth quarter of this pfitable tree of com̃on wealth.

            But let vs knowe when this tree, being wth the fowre rootes soe surelie staied & fastened wthin this realme, what fruite shall growe on this same tree ?   This tree shall beare fowre plenteous fruites, correspondent to the fowre last roots ; for in likewise as by moistnes of the roote eủy tree beareth his fruite, even soe by the vertue of [the First of] these fowre rootes, [which is Justice] this tree shall beare the fruite of hoorable dignitie ;   by the vertue of the Seconde roote, wch is truth, this tree shall soone beare the fruite of wordlie psperitie; by vertue of the Thirde roote, wch is concorde, this tree shall bringe forth the fruite of Tranquillitie,   And by vertue of the fowrthe roote, wch is peace, this tree shall bring forth the fruite of good example.   Andnotwithstandinge theise fowre fruits, thus plenteouslie growinge out of this tree of com̃on wealth, by vertue of the fowre rehersed rootes, be asmuch bewtifull and profitable for or Soủaigne Lo : and all his subiects in such manner as afterwards shalbe rehearsed; yet, considering he is one of the most xp̃en kings and all his subiects are xp̃en people, of necessitie this tree muste beare this first fruite {24} of com̃on wealth surelie fixed and rooted wth theis fowre laste rootes, and plenteouslie garnished wth theise fowre rehersed fruites, wch were often & manye tymes foundes amonge the Turkes ; and yet padventure some would saie that theire tree hath not the roote of Justice.   Yes, verelie & padventure more surelie fastened with them then with vs.   Hath not theire tree the roote of concorde and vnitie amongs themselves?   Yes, too well, the more pittie it is.   Hath not theire tree the roote of peace, for ye more pte at their wills and pleasures?   Doth not their tree beare and bring forth theise fowre rehersed fruits?   Yes, wthout faile and abundantlie.   First, honorable dignitie : whoe hath had soe excellent men ?   None, as touching bodilie honor and dignitie.   Theire tree hath wordlie psperitie, and doth beare abundantlie of longe contynuance.   Haue not they in their tree the spirit of good example?   Yes, doubtles, after the manner of theire ceremenies that they kepe.   Then this tree of com̃on wealth, bringing forth theis fowre fruits, and yet, be they neủ soe plenteous, they not necessarie for our catholike and xp̃en realme, wthout the fiveth fruite, wch wch is most delicate and beste for a xp̃en prince and his subiects, wch frute is the honor of god, and this fruit is plenteous, that it will not faile to come and growe in this tree by vertue of the first roote wch is the love of god, and that muste be to love and knowe him by faithfull workes, and by gloryous words and curyous ceremonies.  And this fruite will neủ growe in the tree of com̃on wealth amongs Paynims or Gentiles, Turkes or Sarrisons, all because they want the roote of true love or knowledge of god, wch roote they or anie of them, wthout it were certaine pticuler psons called by grace, could neủ attaine vnto,   And, for a shorte conclusion, that tree that lacketh this roote shall neủ beare this fruite.   But this tree of com̃on wealth, having this principall roote of true love or knowledge of god, by faithfull and charitable workes, and thereby plenteouslie bringing forth the fruite of the {25} honor of god,  wth thother fowre rehersed fruites, is nowe meete and verie necessarie to growe in this realme.   But howe shall theis fyve manner of fruits be bestowed amongs or Soủaigne Lord and his Subiects?   Shall eủy man take or pull from this tree at his libtie of eủy of theis fruites, and that as larglie as him liste, having noe regard to the state or condic̃on the pson be of?   Naie, trulie, theis fruits muste be taken discreetlie, and as oftentimes as the psonage requireth, or els they will doe more harme then good.   And nowe to that prupose shall I speake of the fowre laste fruits and leave the principall and chief fruite till afterwards.   And as the first of theis fowre fruites whch is honorable dignitie there maie noe manner of the subiects, sp̃uall or temporall, pesume to take one piece of this fruite by hiw owne powre or aucthoritie, but muste haue it by deliueraunce of his Soủaigne onlie.   Therefore the whole sorte of this fruite is ordeyned and shewed for himself, and where it please him to dispose it’ and they to home he listeth to giue it may retaine it and none other; for by what pson in his realme, being his subiecte, maie be said trulie, that he is entred into and honorable dignitie, sp̃uall or temporall, wthout he saith that he receaveth the same of his handes, or of thands of his progenitors, and in that, that none of his subiects maie pesume to take anie pate of this fruite but by his deliueraunce; then it followeth pfectlie the matter of this roote, wch is Justice.   For whoe of his subiects maie mynister anie pointe of Justice betwene ptie and ptie, except he haue his aucthoritie from his Soủaigne; and theis be twoe of the highest of his Regallities, and given to him onlie from aboue.   Wherefore the chardge of his grace is the more right well to foresee to whome he deliureth or com̃iteth the roote, wch is the mynistrac̃on of Justice, or whome he rewardeth or advaunceth wth the fruite, wch is honorable dignitie.   As to the Seconde fruite, wch is wordlie prosperitie, this fruite sheweth most pperlie for the Chivalrie of this realme, wch be Dukes, Erles, {26} Barrons, Knightes, &c.   They maie take righte plenteouslie of this fruite wthout deliueraunce.   Soe that one of them vsurpe not to take his supiors pte; for it will ill agree at length the Erle to take the fruite of the psperitie of a Duke, Or the Barron of the Erle, or the Knight of the Baroñ; eủy man to be contented wth the fruite of his owne pptie.   And this fruite followeth his roote, wch is troth, right ordinatlie; for though falshoode, whoe to troth is contrarie, doth right evill with eủy pson, yet doth it worste wth the noble Knightes, and the more noble ye be, the worse doth falshoode beseeme you.   Wherefore you of the chivalrie, kepe ye moste speciallie the truthe, and ye canot lacke the fruite of wordlie psperitie, and that in plenteous manner.   As for the Thirde fruite of this tree, wch is tranquillitie, though it be a pfitable fruite for eủy of the subiects, yet it is moste necessarie for the greate nomber of the Com̃onaltie of this realme, for they be most in nomber, and can best help themselves; and for them it is soe necessarie that if they lacke it, farewell the good true srvice of labourers & srvaunts, farewell the good dilligence of Tylth and husbandrie, and in effecte farewell all the honest and true dilligence amongs the comynaltie.   There are twoe manner of fruits of Tranquillitie; the one is tranquillitie in ease and pleasure,   But of this fruite I do not meane for the cõenaltie to meddle wth, but vtterlie to refuse it, as they would venyme or poyson.   Also this fruite of this mannr of tranquillitie, groweth not in this tree, wthoutit be in a watery boughe, not trulie rooted.   But if anie such happen to growe, gather them not, but let them hange still for Jaies and pyes, or for such of yor wyves or daughters wch doe not force [regard] thrifte, But the other tranquillitie is meete for you, and that is to haue tranquillitie to applie dilligentlie wth true labor & honest busynes.   This fruite is ordained for yor foode, & the {27} rather shall ye haue it, if the roote of concorde be well fastened amongs you in the forme aboue rehersed.   And as for the fowrth and laste of theis fowre fruits, wch is the fruite of good example, It is the naturall fruite on wch the clergie should feede, and though some pte thereof be resrved for the Chevalrie and cõialtie, yet the greatest porc̃on and store thereof shall serue for them as of right it beseemeth, and of this fruite they maie vse as plenteouslie as them liste, and the more they vse thereof the more good shall it doe them, and this fruite maye they more boldlie and lardglie meddle wth, if they doe their dutie for the good preservac̃on of the roote that it springe out of, wch is the roote of peace.   What is the dutie to doe for the preservac̃on of of contynuaunce of that roote, but to shewe in themselues the pfit tokens of peace, wch be patience, humylitie, & reuerence ; and besides that to pray dulie for the pfitte peace.   Soe theis be the fowre laste fruits of this tree of comˉon welth, by the vertue of the fowre last roots thereof, and ye see by what psons they shalbe taken, but yet all the subiects must order themselues well wth good [blank in MS.] the gathering or taking of theis fowre fruits, that is to saie, eủy man to gather or take the fruits meete for himself, and wth discrec̃on & sp̃iallie to beware of such of thother fruits that be not appropriated or meete for them, or els they will infecte and not norishe.   Firste, the Clergie to be contente wth the fruite of good example, and not covet or desire the fruite of honorable dignitie, wch is all at the discrec̃on of theire Soủaigne; if they accept it when it is freelie offred them, it is time eneoughe, and to rathe [too early] wthout they be thereto able and meete, and though they be neủ so able, let them in noe wise desire it by anie waies or meanes; for if they come by it soe, they incontynently thereby be casten into daungrous sicknes of Symonie, or els into a greate spice thereof.   Maye they take or resigne of the fruite of wordle prosperitie chieflie appropriated to the Chivalry?   Naye, verelie, if they intende {28} to occupie well their owne fruite, wch is the fruite of good example, for they will hardlie agree togithers.   Also in them it is a great prpatiue towards thinfirmitie of inconstancy.   Howe shall they be wth the fruite of such tranquillity, most necessarie for the cõialtie?   Of that fruite they may be suffred to take some pte, soe it be to thintente to vse theire owne fruite of good example the more lardglie, and els not; Howbeit yet oftentymes tribulac̃on is to them but a fruite of good example.   As for the Chivalrie, let them in anie wise beware howe they meddle wth the fruite of honorable dignitie, although it be otherwiles tollerable for them to desire it, when they are meete therefore, yet is it more laudable to haue it of the free disposic̃on of theire Soủaigne.   But in all cases let them neủ psume to take it of theire owne auchtoritie, for then it will surelie choke them.   Howe shall they take vpon them to meddle wth the fruite of good example, that the Clergie doth?   Thought they meddle therewithall they shall not speede the worse.   And as the fruite of sure tranquillitie of his nature he is to wordlie honor a kinde frende, & as for the cõialtie theire owne fruite is most kindly for them; for as to the fruite of honorable dignitie, let them in anie wise neủ desire to accept it, for howsoeủ they haue it, a labell therewth, and that is not prodet or non decet.   Howe shall they order themselues for the fruite of wordlie prosperitie, to the Chevalrie belonginge; for they might desire it, though the honest merchants and such other of greate substaunce doe deale therewth; yet to the multitude of the com̃ons it is neither pfitable nor necessarie, for the fruite of such tranquillitie is sufficient for them.   May not they vse the fruite of good example that groweth for the clergie, through their true dilligence, wth dilligent labor by [blank in MS.]   Of theire good example pcase wth faith it sufficeth;  but let them not smatter in matters of divinitie, least thinfecc̃on of heresie creepe in wthall.   Nowe haue ye, howe eủy man of theise fowre fruits shall take or refraine.   But howe they shall vse them {29} it is necessarie to know.   As ere it be spoken howe theis fowre fruits shalbe vsed, it is convenyent to speake of the first and principall fruite, that is, thonor of god, wch [blank in MS.] is the firste and most excellent fruite in comparison.   Wherefore thother are but poyson or venyme to be resembled to a pfit medicyne; for this is the verie true comfortable fruite, wthout the wch all thother are nothing to be regarded, but vtterlie to be dispised, and sp̃iallie wth a xp̃en Kinge, and in a  xp̃en realme, & this fruite of his wholsome nature is next and redy for eủy man that will take it, aswell for or Soủaigne Lord as for the clergie, aswell for the Chivalrie as the com̃ons, aswell for the nobles as for the vnnobles, aswell for the poore as for ye riche, aswell for the younge as for the olde, for the sicke as for the whole.   O pretious fruite of a noble nature, that is moste wholesome, and sheweth to all manner of men that will take it, the more a man dealeth wth it the more holesome it is, and the more a man eateth of this fruite the more greedy he is in it; the more greedy the more good it doth him; the faster he gathereth the more plentie he leaveth.   This is a dellicate fruite for a xten Kinge; this is the fruite that preserveth all other fruits; this is the fruite that all men should insatiablie desire; this is the fruite that vseth neither gold nor silver, prayer, srvice nor labor; this is the fruite that is both meate and drinke, and true medicine, both erly and late.   Wherefore, first seeke for this fruite, that is soe good, pfitable and easy to be gathered,   And all thother fowre fruits and all theire necessaries shall plenteouslie be added to you.   But now [to] speake of the manner of the vse of thother fowre fruits that are soe perilous and soe dangerous of theire owne nature, that they {30} may not in anie wise be vsed after the manner of the rehersed excellent fruite,  And that for many causes, but sp̃iallie for twaine.   The one is they are so delicious that they must needs be vsed wth payned sawce [? bread sauce, from French pain] for else they [are] very poison, and neither medicynable nor meete.   Thother cause is [that] all theis fowre fruits haue p̉ilous cores wthin them, that maie in noe wise be touched, but of necessity be vtterlie refused, for they be venemous in the highest degree, that noe cause will help them.   And also it is very necessarie to pare theis fowre laste fruites,  And yet for all that, that [sic: they] must be vsed wth payned sawce; forasmuch as the fowre parings and the fowre cores of theis fowre fruits are of diuerse and seuerall propties or natures,   And that one manner or kinde of sawce must and will serve for all theis fowre fruits.

            Firste I will speake of the fowre parings of theis fowre fruits, and that [sic: then] of the fowre p̉ilous cores, and after of th enecessary and payned sawce, that will serue well for theis fowre fruits.   And firste as touchinge the paringe of theis fruits of honorable dignitie, wch fruite is most conveniently ordayned for or Soủaigne Lord to dispose; then, if the parings thereof be noble, hauing many noble vertues, yet shall it be right necessarie to him as he vseth it, for to pare and lose [loose] the paringe from the fruite, and to dispose and distribute the paringe to the other that haue nede thereof.   The paringe of this fruite is compassion or pittie, the wch paring right well beseemeth the Royall fruite of honorable dignitie; for it is to be doubted that this fruite weareth sore, if the paringe of compassion and pittie doe not growe, but this fruite of honorable dignitie to turne cruell tyrannye, wch is cleane contrarie to the nature thereof.   This paringe must be pared or loosed from the fruite, for if it be close or sticke faste to the fruite, it will doe but little good or none; and when it is pared it must be distributed to all them that haue need of it, and not to {31} be casten to the dogs, for it is ordayned for the children of men.   But if a question be asked, wch of the subiects haue neede of this paringe, I thinke it is harde for any of them, sp̃iall or temporall, fro the highest degree to the lowest, if all things come to light, clerlie to excuse him, but that once in the yere he hath neee of theis parings, & they that falle into the greatest daunger haue most neede thereof.   Yet I meane not to giue it at all tymes to all them that neede it, lest Justice would cease.   But yet it beseemeth a xp̃en Kinge rather to giue to much then to little; but yet let them neủ wante it what tyme malice and falshood hath brought them the neede thereof; for discrec̃on be disposed, the bettr will his fruite be, and the more will it haue the sent [scent] of his materiall propertie.   What is the paringe of the fruite of good example to the Clergie, but the encrease of vertue and coninge?   Of itself, it is right laudable, and the paringe right prop for good example.   What shall yow of the clergie doe wth theis parings?   Is there anie folke haue nede thereof?   I trowe neủ more nede; and soe greate nede that if you devide not yor parings right hastelie, I feare me the encrease comeinge will fall in this realme.   Looke well vpon yor twoe vniủsities, how famous they haue ben, and in what condic̃on they be nowe.   Where be yor famous men that were wonte to reade Divinitie in eủy Cathedrall church, and in other greate monasteries?   Where be the good and substanciall scollers of gram̃ar that haue ben kepte in this realme before this tyme, not onlie in eủy good towne and cittie, and in other places, but also in Abbies and Priories, in prelats houses, and oftentymes in the houses of men of honor of the temporalitie?   Wherefore the greate prelats wth the help of other of the clergie, pare of theis parings of thencrease of vertue and connynge, and throwe them into yor vniủsities {32} in plenteous maner, soe that eủy one of you in yor diocs doe this aswell in yor cathedrall church, as in Abbies and Priories, and in all other places convenient.   And if you pare yor parings soe, I thinke that [if] ye take some of yor fruite of good example therewth, yor paringe wilbe the more profitable.   Ye that be the greate pillers of the clergie will pcase say vnto me ye would right faine that conninge were encreased if you wist howe to bringe it about.   Two or three waies I will shewe you that will not hinder.   First and principallie haue delight in vertue and conninge yorself, and though yor conynge were right good, yet by encrease and studie you shall make it the better, for the greater yor clergie is the more coñynge you behoveth, and the more paine you shall take therewth.   Let that be yor pastymes and pleasant disports.   The Seconde, favor yor conynge clerkes and promote them wth yor promoc̃ons & churches in the vniủsities and other places: for such as be vertuous and conynge, make them yor Archdeacons and Deanes, and giue them yor Prebendaries.   Let them haue care vnder you of the sicke soules, they knowe what meedisynnes be necessarie; & haue plentie of such about you, for theis gallants should be yor guard from daunger to defend you.   And oủ this, exhorte all other in yor diocs that haue prmoc̃ons, though ye leave purchasinge of lands and mynishe yor diet, for a better chauntry shall ye neủ founde,    And thus distribute ye the parings of yor fruits, coñynge to encrease.   And doe not this onlie yorself, but also dilligentlie exhorte all other clarkes in yor diocs contynuallie to labor and to studie for thencrease of their owne coñynge.   And {33} howe much shall yor promoting of vertuous and conynge clarkes in great nomber encourage ye students of yor vniủsities to take paine & dilligence to encrease in vertue and coñynge.   And howe much shall your large exhibic̃ons given to poore schollers and students encourage younge folkes to applie their learninge and to be vertuous; and then maie you the better be named the stronge pillars of the clergie of Christes chruch.   But I pray god hartelie that none of you turne the parings of the fruite from thencrease of conyinge to the decrease and distrucc̃on of coñynge, & distribute theis parings aswell into the vniủsities as to eủy place of yor diocs.   When doe you soe?   Whensoeủ you of yorself that lacke coñynge, will take no paine to haue it, nor will favor ne cherishe other to haue it, This is one p̉ilous stroke that letteth [hindreth] thencrease of conynge.   Another is, when you dispose yor benefices to such as are not Clarks, having little conynge and less vertue,   But to such as will set their whole mynde, and can be good and profitable stewards of houses and clarks of yor kitchins, and haue well the conynge of abrevement [keeping or writing accounts] and castinge of accompte, or to such as wth good pollicy can survey yor lands, and can well encrease yor fynes and casualties, and will set themselues in yor temporall courtes, and to such as can surelie and wiselie be yor receivors of yor rents and revenues, and rather then faile will boldlie distraine a poore mans cattle, and drive them to pounde till they sterve from hunger.   This is a mischievous buffet to thencrease of conynge.   And yet otherwhiles you haue soe manie former pmises to pforme, and soe greate frendes to please, that yor chief promoc̃ons  goe that way.   And I will not beleeve but you promote some of theis riche Drovers that lend you mony towards yor bulles for yor love; for their bonds will breake.   Theis parings be they that cannot be called to thencrease of conynge nor of vertue, but the destrucc̃on and decrease of them both.   When doe you throwe theis unhappie parings in ye vniủsities? {34}   When ye cause theis manner of Clarkes there to be graduate, not by their learning, and that they maie weare furres in their hoods, and be called masters in lesse then a yere learninge.   They haue their conynge aud learning both; & otherwhiles you send to the vniủsities, young schollers of Tenne or twelue yeres of age, right nere of yor blood, and they must highlie be promoted wth an Archdeconry or prebend ere he can say his matters; he must goe in his grained cloathes lyned with silke, or furred wth the best, as though to that vniủsitie his coninge is but small, yet if he be furnished wth vertue he is not far amysse.   Howe be such simple parings distributed abroade in yor dioces, when such as can [ken] little are promoted to the greate cures; and because he must attend  his svice, he will set one vnder him that will serve for less wages: theis be p̉ilous parings to throwe amongs the poore people.   I truste there are no such in this realme that devide such parings; and if there be, let them leave it as soone as they maie, for besides the daunger of their conscience, it maie turne them to such infamie, pcase more then they haue desrved; for oftentimes the poore people will iudge the likelihod, if there be such a prelate pmoted, for likelihood of profit, they will iudge that he hath his dignitie paymts of mony or els for pfitable srvice, more then afor any coinage or vertue.   They will also saie the same by their prelates if they so pmote their young kinsfolke, and lewde bodies will saie it soone of them, though it be not true;  Wherefore for dischardge of yor soules, and also for keepinge of yor good name, pare well yor fruite of good example, and distribute yor paringe, wch is the encrease of coninge and vertue, as before is rehersed.  What is the paringe of the fruite of wordlie psperitie wch yee of the noble Chevalrie haue?   It is true defence, not to defend a false quarrell, nor to defend a murtherer, a theif or an extorc̃oner;  But deffend poore people from all wronges and iniuries; and otherwhiles in a true cause it is sufferable one of you to defend another: {35} and eủ to be readie to defend yor prince, the churche and the realme; and the oftner you pare this fruite and dilligentlie devide it, the better is the fruite, and the more convenient for you noble men to vse.   As for the fruite of pfitable tranquillitie that is necessarie for your cõialtie to haue a paringe right agreeable for that fruite, and requisite it is for them to pare and distribute it, wch is called trulie exercise.   To what psons shall they distribute theis manner of parings?   To none other but to theire owne children and srvaunts; ffor  the good lief of the cõialtie in substaunce standeth in true labors and lawfull busynesses, And it is behouefull for them to exercise the same both erly and late, frõ tyme to tyme, and not to slugge in their beds, but to be thereat right earlie in the morninge, for then most contynuallie is theire best speed or Jorney ; yet this is not the tymelie exercise that I meane to be the paringe of the fruite of pfitable tranquillitie; but it is to set their children wch be younge betymes to some true labor or busynes, and that as soone as they haue discrec̃on to doe any thinge.   And let not their man savor or delight in the plous paring of Idlenes, for if they once haue a felicitie therein in their youth, it is a great m̉ualie if eủ they fall to be good laborers or artificers.   But will rather serue a gentlemã & that in the worst manner.   And for a true conclusion for the more pte the men children growe to be beggers, Theeves, or both, and the women to be brothels, and at the last begge for their breade.   Ye were better giue them to the Gallows then to bring them vp in Idlenes.   And ye honeste merchauntes and other welthie Com̃oners, be not ashamed to giue yor children pte of theis parings.   Let not the femynine pittie of yor wives destroye yor children; pompe not them at home in furred coats, and their shirts to be warmed against their vprising, and suffer them not to lie in their beddes till tenne of the clocke, and then a warme breakfaste ere his hands be washed :  his nature is soe tender, he may neither learne ne labor.   Mr. John {36} he muste be called; and his fathers srvaunts set their bodies to some busynes and that betymes.   Remember yorselues hew ye wonne yor thriftes [profits of labour].   Dandell them not to derelie, lest follie fasten on them; for oftentimes all that you leave, though ye were longe in gettinge thereof, wth much penurie and paine, shortlie they spende it wth vnthriftie manner.   Experience will shewe more then all this.   Ye nobles of the Chivalry, [blank in MS.] the parings of the prsident to you it will doe you noe harme, somewhat afore that was touched.   But as for your poore Com̃oners caste the paring of yor fruite to yor children as ye love their lyves; if they will grudge at this diet, let good stripes be their second service.   Thus haue wee done wth the parings of theis fowre fruits.

            Wherefore nowe it is tyme to speake somewhat of ye fowre p̉ilous cores,   And though the former fruite of honorable dignitie belonging to the kings and princs be right precious and glorious, and the paringe thereof right laudable and worthie, yet the core is very p̉illous to be touched and vsed :  it is named vnreasonable elac̃on or pride.   It is noe wise good to vse it wth yor fruite of honorable dignitie, yet throwe it not awaye; it may fortune to serve right well for some other purpose; but com̃yt yt to the custodie of yor reason, wth a great chardge to kepe it surelie till you haue neede thereof, and com̃aunde yor reason to locke it faste in the coffer of yor memory, and for more suretie let her set in her foote of subiecc̃on; for the naturall pptie of this core is to exalte and lifte vp if he maie by any meanes the fruite of honorable dignitie aboue his place:   And not only aboue his owne pp place, but also aboue his owne knowledge, and will not rest so.   But if he haue libtie he will surelie set him aboue the highest pte of reason, and then will he stronglie oppresse and subdue all the pte of reason, and then is man but verie beast, and at the last he will cast the man wth all his honor and dignity into the inremediable sicknes of extreme {37} Ruyne.   What was the cause that Lucifer fell, wch was set in the moste honorable dignitie that eủ was creature that god made?   None other cuase but vsing of elac̃on or pride.   This pillous core of this glorious fruite of honorable dignitie, this core in  him wrought his naturall pptie, wch did eleuate and lifte vp this fruite aboue his pp place and aboue his knowledge, and at the last aboue the highest pte of heaven.   For the core would needes set the fruite of Lucifers dignitie equall wth the godheade, and Lucyfer ungratiouslie consented to the same.   But what fell thereof?   Incontinently Lucifer, wth all his honor and dignitie, descended from the highest pte of heaven to the deepest dungeon in hell.   Howe wrought this core wth our alter apparent [sic] Adam, whoe was in the most honorable dignity that eủ was man, and soe high shall neủ man be set againe of Im̃ortallity; and in the greatest honor of innocency?   But this core, not therewth contented, would needes haue his fruite in an higher pointe and set him at the last soe highe, yt he set him clerely aboue the reasonable soule of Adam, wherevnto he foolishlie consented and would haue ben as wise as god.   What followed of him?   Then he was incontinently driven out of the heavenlye paradice into the vale of myserie & wretchednes; he loste his dignity of ym̃ortallity, and was abhominable and mortall; he loste his honor & iñocency, and was made fraile and sinfull.   Howe practised this core wth the mightie King Pharao, whose honorable dignitie was soe greate that he was not onlie kinge of Egipt wth many other cuntries, but he had, wth the subủc̃on and captivitie of the people of god, the children of Israell?   But this pillous core would not thus be satisfied, but nedly [necessarily] would inhaunce his fruite, and brought [him] soe high that he sat clerelie aboue reason, and all the ptes thereof.   What fell of it soone after?   Was not Pharao drowned in the bottome of the red sea wth all his powre and dignity?   O pilous core yt brought Lucifer wth all his dignity out of the highest pte {38} of heaven into the deepest pit of hell!   O pillous core, that brought Adam wth all his honor and dignity out of Paradice into the vale of myserie!   O pilous core, that brought Kinge Pharao wth all his powre and dignitie into the bottome of the red sea!    O pilous core, that hast heretofore destroyed ynumerable kings and princes, and hast brought them wth theire honorable dignitie vnto Ruyne and myserie!   O pilous core, that wouldst in likewise from henceforth vtterlie confounde al kings and princes, that will their false appetite applie or followe!    Wherefore let eủy x̃peñ kinge and prince, and all other psons rewarded wth this fruite of honorable dignitie, beware of vnreasonable elac̃on the core thereof.   But what shall be said of the holsome fruite of good example belonging to the Clergie?   May soe good a fruite haue soe bad a core?   Yea verelie this fruite hath a subtill core and of his prop nature is the key and distrucc̃on of all good workes.   It is named subtill glorie or glorificac̃on.   And the vsers of this fruite of good example haue need to beware wisely of this core, for be ye sure this fruite will haue this core, and it appeth very subtill to the will or vndrstanding of man; and will enter by fyve false or subtill steps ere he come to his verie restinge place.    ffirst this core of glorie will bringe a mañ to remember & reckon in his mynde the good examples and meritorious deeds that he hath done or caused to be done, wch seemeth to be good rather then ill.   But if a man doe wiselie, even there let him reste.    Let noe man meddle wth this subtill and false core, nor wth his craftie pswasion, for let us be faste and sure, that all our good deedes be trulie nombred, reckoned or remembred in the eternall booke of the eternall knowledge of god, and that wthout omyssion of the leaste braunch or pointe of them, and there shall they be redy for vs at our neede.    And therefore if we will surelie beguile this false core, when he exhorteth vs to reckon of vertuousnes, let vs busilie reckon, nomber and accompt our synnes, and be repentant for them wth hope of {39} remyssion.   Stoppe this subtill core at this pointe and he will neủ covet or desire vs further.   But if we consent to him at this point, he will bring vs to reioice our selves in or good deedes, examples, or workes, and this seme not verie evill, though it be neither good nor necessarie; for if we will reioice of ourself for our good deeds or workes, let vs reioice onlie in god and his grace, whreby and by whome we haue done it, and not in the good deede; for though the doers thereof had neủ bene made or created, the same good deede should haue bene done.   Therefore when we be pvoked therto, let vs onlie ioy in god, and give lauds to him that giveth vs grace to doe them, and nothing in the deeds.   And wth that let vs be sorie that we haue not pformed or grace in doing manie more good deedes, by vs lewdlie omitted, that we ought, and nothing haue done.   If wee set or wills thereto, and by this meanes, we shall well reiecte him wth his false purpose at his seconde stop, though we did it not at the first.   If he wyn this stop on vs, and bring vs in once to reioyce or selues in or good exmaples and deeds,   Then he offreth to vs himself wth his glorie, or glorificac̃on, that is noe more, but to esteme vs to be happie, vertuous and glorious, for doing of the same, and to repute or selues to be the beloved people of god, and to be those that keepe the com̃aundemts of god better then other synners doe.   Nowe let vs beware, and now let vs mightely resiste him, for nowe this false core sheweth himself moste vnto vs in his prop nature, spreading his banner openly in a field as or mortall enemy.   But let vs stand stiflie against him, for yet maie we wthstande him if we will.   There is noe better remedy then to consider if we haue done any good deede, or good example, yet we ahue done nothing soe much as or dutie is, and of verie kindees we are bounde to doe.   And then let vs remember we can neủ worthelie recompence almightie god for his benefits.   ffirste for the benefits of creac̃̃on, the benefits of redempc̃on, the benefits of his prsrvac̃on, wth a sure knowledg that all that we {40} haue done, or doe, is of god both soule and bodie; all cometh of him and nothing of ourself;—and besides this to consider that all our vngratiousnes and sinfull lyvings and vnkinde dealing against god, cometh only of or unhappie and frowarde disposic̃on.   And theis two points well considered, wth or owne filthines, shall cause vs rather to despise or selues then glorie in our self.   Howbeit if this false and subtill core wth his thirde stop or bulwarke vpon vs, begyn and take holde on vs once in that pointe that wee glorifie vs in or self for or good deeds, then will he make a stronge assault to wyn the fourth stop or warde vpon us, and that is to esteme orselfe to be worthie to be glorified beyond all other psons, and that other men shall repute vs to be vertuous and good folkes, and the charitable keps of the lawes of god; and to thintente that he will surelie and stronglie wynne this warde, he will provoke vs to doe such good deeds as wee will doe in the face of the world, that is, to doe them in such manner that all people maie knowe it for or deeds, howsoeủ we will in doinge our devoc̃ons,   Be it praire, fastinge, or almes deede, rather in open places then in prvate; otherwhiles when we haue done them right secretly, to shewe them outward to other folkes, and soe to make them to appe or els at the least to be well content that other shall declare or manifest them, and at the laste be gladde to heare the praises thereof.   Or els we doe anie charitable or meritorious deed, we will cause [blank in MS.] badges or scriptures, or both, to be made, to declare openlie the doers thereof.   But wee will saie for or excuse it shall be a good occasion to other that hereafter shall see or heare thereof to praie the rather for their soules.   O false illuc̃on of this subtill core, let us be sure all theis open declarac̃ons or anie good deeds doe vtterlie destroye or merits for them, or at the least it pfiteth nothing to our soules: whensoeủ we doe anie good or meritorious deed, let vs doe it wth the pfit circũstauncs, wch is only for charitie and the honor of god.   The aucthor {41} should neither devise [blank in MS.] nor scripture; for god wch is the true searcher of all harts is the large rewarder of all good deeds and intents; and rewardeth all psons of eủy good intent or act that is done, more then he desrveth.   Therefore if our acts be well ordered, it is but vanity to add thereto other knowledge then thonly knowledge of god, wch sufficeth, and neủ faileth.   But or intents be vpon this our open knowledge, that beside our merit to god, yet we would gladlie haue some lawde or good reporte of the people, for or doing thereof.   Let vs then be sure or merits be clerelie lost, yet is the deede good, and we haue taken therefore our owne rewarde, wch is the lawde and fame of ye people.   Let eủy man examyne the vttrmost of his owne mynde and intente when he setteth vpon any such open knowledge of his good deeds, whether there be noe pte of his purpose to haue some fame or lawde therefore.   But this malicious core in the fowrth stoppe or pointe, will not be soe content, that is, to make vtterlie to leese all or merits for or good examples and deeds, and also in the same to cause vs mortally to synne,   And that is thus:  When at this desire we make any such open knowledge of or good workes, he will not only entice vs to desire therefore lawde or pompe of the people, but induceth vs to thinke orselues for such acts worthie to be lawded and glorified of the people.   And if he can  bringe vs thereto, then hath he wonne the fowrth warde, for that is a deep mortall synne, and the very synne of vaine glory.   The best defence for such assente to this pointe shalbe to vs to remember when we be sturred to thinke orselves worthie to be glorified of other folkes for our good deeds,   How abhominable we be of or synnes, both in thought and deed, and if we will needs showe our good deeds to be glorified for them, let vs shewe the badde also, and soe both togithers, for that is an indifferent waie, and then let vs see well orself howe much worthe we be to be glorified :    padventure if we should thus doe, as glorious as we would be, we would be right {42} loath to shewe our faces for shame.   Besides this let vs thinke for a suretie, whensoeủ and as often as we be of desire of our appetite, we intend the most dishonor to god our creator and redeemer that lyeth in vs to doe, for we would haue that done vnto vs that onlie to his godhead ptayneth, for he it is to whome the glorie for all good deeds should be done.   Also eủy creature by the order of humylitie, though he doe neủ so manie good deedes, should repute himself most wretched, and not onlie that, but also should inwardlie desire to be reputed with all other people.   Yet this damnable and cursed core will not be thus satisfied to leave vs in this greate daunger of mortall synne, but will also wynne vpon vs the fifte and the last stop wthout we resist him right mightely; for his nature is such, themore he wynneth on vs, the more stronger he is and we the weaker.   The fifte stoppe is that he would cause orselves to thinke to be glorious in or vertue and in our good deeds, that the glory of orselves and the glorie of all other people sufficeth not for vs, but that we [are] worthie to be glorified of god.   O false canckred core,   What meanst thou, that thou wouldst haue vs wretched synners to esteme ourselves worthie for to haue that reward that all the Virgins, Martirs, and Confessors, nor the holiest Sts in heaven could neủ deserve!   Wouldst thou haue vs damnable creatures thinke, or psume vs worthie of or dignitie to have that reward that the sacred virgin [blank in MS.] could neủ think herself worthie to haue or obtaine for that rewarde to be glorified?   It is soe high that neủ man nor woman cd truly saie he deserved it, but only Christ Jesu, for he was that, that was onlie god.   Wherefore let not the best of vs synners thinke anie other worthines in orselues, but to be ppetuallie tormented of or ghostlie enemy the Dyvell, and not be glorified of god, saving by the great favor & mercie of or maker and redeemer.   And this to remember oftentymes in our myndes shall not be the worst remedy against the venymous core in this fifte stoppe or {43) pointe:  but in any wise let vs resiste him ere he come at this pointe, for the rather [earlier] we deale wth him the easier he is to wthstand, and worst at the laste.   This is the pestilingall core of this wholsome fruit of good example, and of all other good workes done by any pson spũall or tempall, and the better worke it is, and the more pfit to the doers, the more busy will this malicious core be.   Therefore my Lords and Mrs of the Clergie, when you vse yor fruite, be ye well ware of the core, and touch it not, yet throwe it not away, but let yor poore chamberlaine kepe it, for some other purpose it maye be necessarie,   What then is the core of wordlie psperitie, the fruite of the chevalrie?   It is vaine delectac̃on, a core right daungerous with that fruite to be vsed.   The propertie of this core is not onlie to bereve clerely the minde of man from god and good vertuousnes, and also from himself, but thereto involve securely the memory and vnderstanding of man, and finally to make man abuse himself both in body and soule, and then followeth great adủsitie and vtter distruc̃on.  Vaine delectac̃on is proplie when a man setteth his love greatlie or knowledge on a thinge.   And then if a man once enter into his delectac̃on of worldlie propitie, the more he entreth therein the more delight he shall haue thereof, and at the last shall set his whole mind thereon.   Even likewise as though his mynde were ordayned for the same purpose only, and for none other thinge.   And soe shall his minde be clerely aliened from god and himself, and at the laste abuse the man both in body and soule, as [blank in MS.? hath] bene said, & soe fynallie to destroy him.   ffirst, to prove if this faileable core of vaine delectac̃on be fixed or set in worldlie prosperitie, it will clerely wthdrawe and alyenat a mans mynde from god and himself.   Wherefore it is best eủy man to examyne himself, and soe shall he beste knowe howe greatly his mynde is in a manner ravished, when he setteth his delectac̃on in wordlie prospitie.   Shall not he be in that case that at mattens and masse, his {44} mynde will ronne thereon and all in vaine.   Shall he eate or drinke but that they will be there, and often tymes let man from his sleepe and other naturall rests.   And for a true conclusion let the body be where he will or doe what he pleaseth, the mynde will be there, and this pillous delectac̃on of worldlie prosperitie will not faile to bringe wth her the hastie abusion and distrucc̃on of man.   And twoe other enemyes in a manner as well as herself, wch be concupiscence and delectac̃on of the flesh, and of pride of the lief.   This delectac̃on is the foule lust of the flesh or body, and delectac̃on of the world much like in condic̃on as well in the alienation of the mynde in manner, as otherwise to abuse him to his owne distrucc̃on.   But yet this delectac̃on of the worlde is the worse, for as to refraine fleshlie delectac̃on there be diủs things that will somewhat slake it,   But for this delectac̃on of the world there is almost noe remedy.   For the delectac̃on of the flesh a man maye watch, fast longe, or kepe soe slender diet, that it shall not greatlie trowble him.   To thother it will nothing prvaile,    Or els, if it be a man that may marry, let him take a wief;   he maye vse her soe that pcase he shall haue noe great delectac̃on neither in her nor in none other.   And the younge wedded wyves force [care] not greatlie to bring their husbands into that case; It is but a follie to fulfill their appetits.   Better it were the wief to waste a sigh, or xxti, then the husband to be combred wth a quarten [? quartan ague] by a yere or twoe, and speciallie if it come that waye, it is pllous to cure.   But such a medicine will not helpe to thother delectac̃on, for the more of that insatiable core a man taketh, the more he delighteth, and if it were possible [for] him to haue all this world, it would scant quenche his thirste.   Howe foolish or howe madde is man yt will thus much delight in his mortall enemye, for this is the enemy of all enemyes, that will not be content to elevate the mynde of man clerelie from God and himself, and to set it only & entirely in corruptible and transitorie vanitie, as is {45} afore rehearsed,   But that will not involve and wrap both the memory and the vnderstanding of man, and at the laste soe abuse himselfe from the condic̃ons of a reasonable man to the condic̃ons and propties of an vnreasonable beaste,  and to make themselves as a horse or a moyle [mule]    The wch thinge in man to be done or made, the holie Kinge David forbiddeth of all things, for of that insaciabillitie followeth a beastlie punishmt.   Yet this cruell enemy the core of vnreasonable delectac̃on will not be satisfied to ahue the man made in bodie as a beaste, and for that to suffer beastlie punishmt, but oủ that will not reste till he bringe aswell the bodie as the Soule to the most extreame distrucc̃on and confusion.   And therefore this delectac̃on may well and trulie be called a beastlie appetite.   Howe maye it be proved that this beastlie appetite of delectac̃on involveth and wrappeth the vnderstanding and memory of man:   They beinge twoe ptes of the reasonable soule?   Yes verelie this delectac̃on of worldlie prospitie wth the helpe of his twoe redy adherents, wch be delectac̃on of the fleshe and pride of the lief, will soe involve and wrappe his vnderstandinge and memorie, wch is the knowledge or remembraunce of man, that he shall neither knowe nor remember god nor man, nor himself as he ought, but to be as a thinge that hath clerlelie loste all knowledge and remembraunce, he shall not knowe god wth honor to be the giver & wthdrawer of all prosperitie at his good [blank in MS.: ? pleasure] but rather he will thinke it cometh to him by right of succession, or by deserts of his own wisdome, hardynes, strengthe, or coninge.   He will not knowe men wth reủence or dutie, for he will esteme himself to be more worthie then other, or at the leaste to be fellowe with his better.   He will not knowe himself, neither remembr from whence he came, what he is, nor whether it [? he] shall [sic.]   Whence we came,—all we came from Adam, and wch of vs the prince or the poore or nexte of kynne by grace to the Manhood, or wch is most noble, it is hard {46} to tell,    But either we wilbe soe loath to knowe, and remembr from whence it came, that we in noe wise would be knowne of or Grandfather or Grandmother, or else we wilbe loath to meddle wth anie man that knoweth them, and padventure, even soe be or fathers and mothers, and other of or kynne.   Thus we will not knowe from whence we came.   Doe we not also forget what we be, and specially when we delight in this vnhappie fruite.   Whoe will knowe himself in psperitie what thinge he is indeed?   For all his prospitie what is he the better but a miserable man, having and suffring all the passions, disseases and infirmyties as well of the soule as of the bodie, equall wth the poore plowman, and oftentymes much worse.   Will any of theis disseases, passions or infirmities forbeare him one mynute of an houre for all his worldlie prosperitie; or what beaste, fowle or fishe will obey him more therefore; or what beaste or worme on his fury will forbeare him more then the poorest begger that goeth?   Looke when or glorious garmts be done of [off] and we naked, what difference is then betwene vs and the poore laborers?    Pradventure a more fowle and shamfull carcase.   Also looke whether or naturall mother broughte vs into this wretched world wth like sorrowes and paines, and the simple bodie all naked as the child of povertie and miserie.   Looke a little further on orselves.   Looke on or filthie things that goeth naturallie from or filthie bodie: in prosperitie padventure it is more abhominable then of the poor pilgrimme.   Theis things men willnot knowe in themselues amonge.   He would be loath to heare or knowe what he was xxty yeres past or lesse.   Thus men haue forgotten from whence they came and what they be.   Will they remember whether they shall?   [Sic.]   I would to god they would, for that might fortune them to amende.   The residue, howbeit, whether they remember or not;    Death cometh & tarieth not.   Howsoeủ or in what manner, or in what place, is it not knowne,  for where man reckoneth and {47} trusteth to continue xx,   thirtie or fortie yeres,   Death cometh oftentymes in xltie daies or lesse,   And when he cometh all the treasor in the Towre cannot entreat him for one daye.   In what manner will he come?   There, as a man trusteth, he will come wth some curtesie or respit,   He will come oftentimes cruelly and fervently wth a sharpe pestilence or wth a shorte plurisie, or a [blank in MS.] and an ympostume, and the man shalbe whole this night, and dead tomorrowe, or in three daies oftentymes, and that is longe leisure.   Many manner of diủsities therein that in a man it is impossible to reckon.   Then to reckon them to execute theire experience to you.   And as to the place where he will execute his deede he will not shewe it but kepe it secretlie; for men trusting to die in their beds in prospitie, and oftentymes he dieth by execuc̃on and not worth a peny; otherwhiles in prison and in a deepe dungeon.   And oftentymes his supfluous psperities be the cause and not the guylte; otherwhiles slaine in the field or on the waye, or in some other place by his enemyes or thieves’ otherwhyles suddenly killed in some other place, and that by them whome he trusteth right well, by casualty that noe man will reckon; but for a suertie, as his waies be innumerable, soe be his placs.   And soe thende of all prospous folkes is vnknowne and wthout doubte more vncertaine then thende of a poore man.   Yet looke a little further on yorselves.   When we be deade, for all or pompe and prospitie, what is or prcious carcas, anie thinge but a carrion most vile and abhomynable, and though there be laide about silkes and [blank in MS.] wth [blank] and spices, to the value of Mli, yet is it none other thinge but a rotten dong, and dogs will not eate it.   And the [blank in MS.] were there but as one of vs?   What shall we carry hence wth vs?   Neither regalitie, pompe, psperitie, notne erthlie thinge ells; for naked we came and naked we shall depte hence, even as the poorest soule that eủ begged breade.   And as for or good deeds, we shall not neede to {48} carry them wth vs, for they be trulie noted before god ere our spirite be depted.   And thus doe or gracious delctac̃on involve and wrappe soe or vnderstandinge and memorie that neither we knowe nor will knowe god, our neighbour, or ourselves.   And oủ this, he will make man to abuse himself and to followe the condic̃ons and pperties of a bruite beaste, as an horse or a mule,   And to forsake the condic̃ons and pperties of a man, if he set once his dilectac̃on to haue this wordlie prsperitie, he shalbe soe greedy and soe desirous to them that he forceth not what paine or labor he taketh or doth to haue them.   And oủ that foreseeth not howe shamefullie or howe vntrulie he cometh by them, soe he maye haue them.   He looketh not, neither to the feare of god, the shame of the worlde, nor that wch ensueth or followeth, but looketh all onlie to obtaine his desire.   And this is the verie naturall esire, condic̃on or ppertie of an horse or a mule, or of anie other vnreasonable beaste, for they regarde nothinge els but thobtayninge of their purpose and delights.   And at seasons he shalbe in such traunce or muses, that he shall neither tell pfectly what he seeth, what he heareth, or what he speaketh.   Then he is a verie beaste, or worse then a beaste, when theis worldlie pspties be obtayned.   Then is the man aferde to goe from them, and thinketh that eủy man will haue them from him; and he abuseth not himself in this false delight of covetinge of them.   But he will abuse himself much more in the vnreasonable delight in the vse and keeping of them.   But howe beastlie is he made, if it fortune him to forgoe them by chaunce of the world or otherwise.   Then is he in such a sorrowfull agony, that thereby he goeth madd for sorrowe and soe die for sorrowe, and murmure against god: for sorrowe some kill themselves.   This is a sorrowfull lowe [?lowing of cattle] aboue all beastlie sorrowes.   Nowe beholde well whether this delectac̃on doth not sore abuse man, insomuch he is made thereby as a beaste, & oftentymes worse.   Yet the pperties of this vngracious delecta-{49}c̃on is much worse then all this, for his will and purpose is to bring the man both body and soule to the vtter distrucc̃on and confusion, if he followe it wthout the great m̉cy of god.   Behold the great kinge Nabuchodoniser, that was in as much wordlie psperitie as anie man might be; But at the laste he set his delectac̃on so much thereon, that he knewe neither god nor himself, but vtterlie followed his vnreasonable delight, and soe abused himself in beastlie condic̃ons, till at the laste he was vtterlie deposed from all his wordlie psperitie, and driven out amongs beasts, and there amonges them fedde like a beaste by a longe season, till at the laste he remembred his olde beastlie and vnreasonable delectac̃on, and then he esteemed himself more worthie to be a beaste then a kinge or knighte, and wth a greate sorrowe and humble repentaunce and heavynes that he tooke towards god, he was restored to his kingdome and obtaynd it agayne.   But let not vs trust of such a spĩall grace; but somewhat remember Nero the great psperous Empor that followed so farre the delectac̃on of his beastlie appetite, that when he perceived [he was] to be destroyed or ponished,    Therefore he vtterlie slewe himself, and soe was destroyed both body and soule.   Howe wrought this delectac̃on wth the psperous and wiseman Salamon?   Did not he therby forsake his verie god, and did Idolatrie?   Howe much was Sampson and other psperous men abused by this pilous core of delectac̃on?   The noble knight Theophilus for the delight of worldlie psperitie gaue himself to the Devell.   What abusion was this?   Howbeit he was saved by spĩall myracle, of or blessed Lady.   Wherefore was the great cyttie Jerusalem destroyed?   By ponishmt for beastlie delectac̃on.   Wherefore were the great Citties of Sodoma and Gomora [blank in MS.] but a ponyshmt for their abusion of beastlie and vnreasonable delectac̃on.   Wherefore all ye noble and psperous men of the Chevalrie set not yor delectac̃on therein.   I say ye shall not forsake or refuse wordlie psperitie, {50} but that ye may right well accept it as god and yor Prince giveth it to you; but looke ye neủ delight therein, for if ye doe it shall comber you, as it is before rehersed.   Wherefore this core of yor worldly psperitie is vtterlie to be refused by you and all other that enter into worldlie psperitie.   Yet caste not awaye this core of delectac̃on:  let yor Treasorie sufficiently kepe it vnto the tyme yt maye be better occupied.   Nowe ye good Com̃oners that haue the fruite of tranquillitie, yor fruite hath a core of the wch ye haue great neede to beware.   For it hath grieved you manie tymes, and that right m̉velouslie.  The core of yor fruite is called lewde enterprise.   I tell you albeit it be dilectious and pleasaunte to beholde, it is a morsell nothing meete for yor diet.   And if ye will needs deale therewth, it will not only bring you from tranquillitie to the disease of grevous Thraldom and misery,   But also oftentymes to vtter destilac̃on [sic: ? destruction.]   This lewde core enterpriseth, ere he come to doe his shamefull feate or intente, most com̃only he sendeth twoe purchipants [pursuivants] or messengers before him, chosen of the worst for or pfit.   The first of these twoe messengers is Discontentac̃on or murmor.   This messenger will induce you to grudg or take some inwarde displeasure in doing yor dutie, as in paying yor farmes, rents for howses and lands to them that ye be bounde to paye it, or for some other pticuler srvice that yor tenñts belongeth to doe; or to murmor at the paymt of Taxes or fyfteenes, when they be graunted for causes necessarie.   He will also induce you to grudge or to disdaine to be in such obediancy or subiecc̃on to yor supiors or betters.    Beware of this messenger, for he must [blank in MS.] you to yor owne mischief, if you to him consent.   And reủently [blank] this fellowe that cometh, the seconde messenger in a gay guilte coate, to inveagle [blank] wth pride, the most pilous spectacle that the com̃inaltie may vse.   Full ill it is in all men; but worst in the poorest.   The name of the seconde messenger is Arrogancye, nighe {51} cosin to pride.   His nature and pptie is to entice to enable yorself to such tings as nothing beseemeth, or to doe such thinges as you can nothing skill on.   He will shewe you that you be made of the same moulde and mettall that the gentiles be made of.   Whie then should they sporte & plaie, and you labor and Tyll?   He will tell you also that at yor birthes and at yor deathes yor riches is indifferent.   Why should they haue soe much of the psperitie and treasor of this world, and ye soe little?   Besides that he will tell you that ye be the children and right inheritors to Adam, as well as they.   Whie should they haue this great honor, royall castels and mannors wth soe much landes & possessions, and you but poore Tenemts and cotages?   He will shewe you also whie that Christ bought as derely you as them, and wth one manner of price, wch was his precious blood.   Whie then should you be of soe poore estate, and they be of soe high degree?    Or whie should you doe them soe much honor and reủence wth crowching and kneeling, and they take it soe high & statelie on them?   And pcase he will informe you howe yor soules and theires, wch maketh you all to be men, for els ye were all but beastes, whereby god created in you one manner of Noblenes wthout any adủsity, and that yor soules be as precious to god as theires.   Whie then should they haue of you so great aucthority and powre to com̃yt to prson, to ponishe and to Judge you?   But you good com̃oners, in any wise vtterlie refuse this messenger; for though he shewe the truth to you, he meaneth full falslie, as afterwards you shall well knowe, and if you once savor in theis things then cometh yor lewde enterprise, the core of yor fruite of tranquillitie, and he will you encouradge to play the man, and bid you remembr well the monstrac̃ons or shewings of the messenger Arrogancy.   He will bid you leave to ymploie yorselues to labor and to tyll like beastes, nor suffer yorselves to be subdued of yor fellowes.   He will pmise to set you on high and to be lords and goủnours, and noe longer to be {52} Churles as you were before; or at the leaste he will pmise you to make you fellowes in bodyes, as god made you in soules, and then shall tere be a Royall rule in this realme.   And to put you in a further comfort he will assure you that some of the Chevalrie will take yor pte openly and privilie, or at the least to give you sufferaunce, prove as you maye.   He will also dipslaye vnto you his banner of insurrecc̃on & saie to you “Nowe set forwarde; yor tyme is right good.”   But woe be vnto that man that will fight therevnder.   He will pmise you to wante noe treasor to pforme yor purpose, for he will saie some of the clergie will comforte you right well and lardglie wth mony, for they haue looked therefore many a daye.   The merchants, the ffarmors, the grasiers that be rich, into this m̉ket will bring their bags that they haue kept soe long.   And as for the widowes and the wyves also [they] will ransacke their forcers [chests, coffers] and their knotted cloutes to the last penny that they can finde, and rather then faile, their girdles, their beads, and their weddinge ringes, thus wisely they will them bestowe,   And as for men he pmiseth you ynnumerable.   Yet ye good Com̃oners, for yor owne ease, deale not wth this false core, but be contented wth the fruite of tranquillity.   It is for you both pfitable and good, and will make you welthie, if welth may be suffred, and grudge not against yor supiors for doing yor duty.   Covet not the psperitie of the Chevalry, nor muse thereon, nor disdaine ye not the great powre of or Soủaigne,   But wth due reủence obey it.   ffor be ye sure that the high prvidence of god is, that ye should doe soe, as he declareth himself right plainly to his chosen people, when they desired a kinge.   Therefore mynde you not this purpose or intente, that is the equallitie of the mouldes betwene the noble and you, nor the cognisaunce of the petegree from Adam, nor the indifferency of their soules in theire creac̃ons, nor be not the prowder that one prince redeemeth both them and you, nor for the glory of all Soules standeth not in bodely {53} powre nor aucthoritie, nor yet in silver, golde nor prtious stones, nor yet in bewtie, strengthe, wisdome nor pollicy; but only in vertue indifferent to all creatures.   But let vs all consider that god hath set a due order by grace betwene himself and aungells, and between angle and angell, and by reason betwene Aungell and man, and betwene man and man, & man & beast, and by nature only betwene beaste and beaste, wch order from the highest pointe to the lowest, god willeth vs fervently to kepe, wthout any enterprise to the contrary.   But of all theis messengers [sic: ? messages] that theis proude and sedicious messengers brought vnto you, if ye will well and substancially ymprinte them in the hartes of the nobles, it should doe noe harme, padventure it would cause them at seasons to haue the more compassion, mercy and charitie oủ the the poore Com̃on̉s.   And to put you in a more pfit remembraunce not to deale wth this lewde core of lewde enterprise, looke howe yorself and such as [you] haue beeen srved and deceived by him in tymes paste.   ffirste consider the great [blank in MS.] of the realme of Fraunce being in great wealth and tranquillitie.   Loke on them a lewde enterprise in the tyme of Kynge [blank] and at that season frowardlie did great and shamefull displeasures and wilfulnes in the noblest of Fraunce.   But in concluc̃on there [sic: ? they] were subdued and vtterly destroyed.   And then were the com̃ons of Fraunce put in more subiecc̃on and thraldome then ever they were before, the wch yet conynueth.   Looke more nere to yorselues the Comynaltie of this realme of England, whoe haue oftentymes smarted full sore for such lewde enterprise: behold well whether the Com̃oners of the west pte of this lande wonne anie honestie or pfit by their lewde entrprise wth their captaine the blacksmyth.   I praie god to saue this realme from any such captaine hereafter.   Therefore of theis presidents you haue enoughe to eschewe this pilous core of yor fruite.    Yet cast not away this entrprise of yor core, for yt may fortune to be to you a chief frende, {54} and therefore keep him close wthin you vnto vnto the tyme ye may lawfullie vse him.   And thus I have done wth theis foure pllous cores of theis fowre fruits.

            Nowe let this necessarie sawce be spoken of that will serve well wth all these fowre fruits, without the wch sauce theis fowre fruits ought not to be vsed, though all they be well pared as is before rehersed.   This sawce is nothing els but he dreade of god.   Albeit this sawce be a little payned [? pines, hungered] at the firste, it is so holsome of himself that he digesteth allmanner of meats that he is vsed wth,   And it is a sawce right agreable and convenyent for eủy manner [of] meate that a xp̃en man shall eate.   This sawce [may be] serveed to the poore and to the rich, to the sicke and to the whole, and to all manner of people that vseth any of theis fowre fruits.   Our Soủaigne Lord when he vseth his fruite of honorable dignitie, he maie not lacke the sawce, and it much be srved to him in the better [?butter] and thoughe this fruite as of himself were either to muche delicious or had any other qualitie infective,   This [blank] sawce will take them all clerely awaye.   And nowe this fruite of honorable dignitie, when it is well pared, that is to saye, when the paringes of compassion are larglie pared therefrom, and bounteouslie distributed where nede requireth, and the core thereof, wch is Elac̃on, not touched, but vsed wth this soủaigne sawce of the dreade of god,   It is a fruite pfit and convenient for a xp̃en  Kinge or a Prince to vse.   And you of devote Clergie in likewise, albeit yor fruite of good example be of ytself m̉vailous good, and that ye right well and plenteouslie from it doe pare the paringes of the encrease of vertue and coñynge, right discretly refuse subtill glorie, the core thereof, yet in any wise vse al yor good deeds and examples wth this pfitable sawce the dreade of god, and the dreade of his secrete Judgmts, and then is yor fruite of good example the verie true exemplarie & myrror of xp̃̃en preists.   And also ye of the noble Chevalry haue greate neede to vse this {55} sawce of the dreade of god abundantlie wth the fruite of worldlie psperitie; for though ye pare therefrom the parings of true defence right dilligentlie and right surelie, abstaine yorself from the delectac̃on thereof,   his core;   Yet it is to much pilous to vse wthout the dreade of god this pp sawce,   But e vsed, wth feare, it is to the fruite right meete and convenient for xp̃en Knights.   And ye good Com̃oners of this realme of England, forbeare ye not this sawce of the dreade of god in vsing of yor fruite of tranquillity, for though ye right busyilie  pare from yor fruite for the pfit of yor children, the paringes of true exercise, and also refuse right wisely the core, wch is lewde enterprise;   Yet this sawce must ye needes vse therewth; but soe vsed it is the pfitable & welthie fruite that is requisite and expedient for you, being Com̃oners of a xp̃en realme, and vnder the obedience of the most xp̃en Kinge.   Padventure you will know when this noble sawce cometh, that necessarilie srveth aswell for theis fowre seủall fruits,  being of foure seủall natures, as for all manner of people, of what degree, age, condic̃on or nature they be of.   This sawce is a Juyce or a lavatory that springeth or issueth out of the principall roote, and out of the tree of com̃on wealth.   Wch principall roote is called the love of god, and issueth and springeth eủmore conveniently wth the most noble fruite that was rehersed, wch is thonnor of god; for it is ympossible wheresoeủ this principall roote the love of god is faste and surely rooted,  [? but that] there shall not only growe and encrease in abundant manner the fruite of the honor of god, but therewth this lycour or sawce of the dreade of god, shall also plenteously springe and issue out.

            Yet padventure some will vnderstande and knowe what shalbe done wth theis fowre pilous cores, of whome soe much dauger was spoken?   And forasmuch as it was advised to keepe them as a store, and not to caste them awaie, and also for that is was said it might fortune them to serve for some good purpose;   ffor this it {56} shall be necessarie to resorte to the vsing of the fifte fruite, wch is the honor of god, and is the most excellent fruite of this tree of com̃on wealth.   Somewhat it is touched of the noblenes of this fruite, and that it was a fruite meete for all psons and of the wch neủ grewe dissease, corrupc̃on or surfet.   It is also that fruite that neủ grewe dissease, corrupc̃on or surfet.   It is also that fruite that needs not other sawce, but beareth all goodnes in himself.   He hath none such daungerous or pilous cores as were spoken of in the other fowre fruites; for he is of that nature that he will suffer nothing that ill is, or maye be, to come to alter all things that be pilous and evell, and will make them good & behoovefull.   For the proofe thereof, let or Soủaigne Lord take Elac̃on, the core of the fruite of honorable dignitie, wch to vse therein was pilous and venemous, but let him vse it wth this noble fruite, the more good the fruite will doe him.  But this fruite will somewhat alter the name of this core, f he were called into the fruite of wordlie dignity “vnreasonable elac̃on,” he shalbe called into this noble fruite of the honor of god “verie elac̃on,” and yet all it is but one thinge in effecte.   And ye Lordes and of the Clergie maye bringe for the the core of the fruite of good example, that is glory, that was therein so pestiferous and wicked, & vse it wth this noble fruite, and see what harme is shall doe.   For a suretie noe harme but much good, for the more ye glory in this fruite the better ye doe.   But for a better knowledge here, I will adde thereto a crtaine Addic̃on: wherefore in or other fruite he might truly be called vaine glory,   This most noble fruite will call him pfit glory.   Where is nowe vaine delectac̃on, this pilous and daungerous core of the fruite of wordlie psperitie, being the fruite of the Chevalrie.   Ye noblemen, nowe bring forth and vse him wth this glorious fruite of the honor of god, for herwth he is nothing noysome, but neverthles he is verie necessarie; for this is the fruite that ye should and at yor libtie maye vse that core wth.   And nowe shall he serve you {57} right well; and the name of this core must somewhat be chaunged by this noble fruite, and that shalbe from vaine delectac̃on to true exaltac̃on, all is one in substance.   And where is this lewde entrprise, the pilous core of the fruite of tranquillity, that ye of the Comynaltie haue surelie kepte, and not vsed it wth yor fruite?   Nowe bringe it forth and vse it at yor libtie wth this fruite; for the more entrprise, and the oftner, ye make to obtaine this fruite of the honor of god, the better you dooe.   For it is the fruite that all xp̃en people should seeke for, for where entrprice attayneth to yor fruite of tranquillitie, it was called lewde entrprice, and in this excellent fruite it may be called noble entrprice.

            And for the reward of this ordering yorself, ye com̃oners in the vsing of yor welthie fruite of tranquillitie, ye shall not onlie haue right singuler praise of the people of other Realmes & outward ptes, but also a great reward of god after this transitory lief.   What a price shall it be to you to be the most pollitique and discrete Com̃oners of all xp̃en realmes & most wiselie prserue yor fruite of tranquillitie, not only wth true labor and pfit concorde amongs yor selues,   But also wth faithfull reủence to god and due obedience to yor prince and supiors.   And they shall wishe themselues to be in such welthie condic̃on as ye be, or els to be suffred to inherit amongs you.   But howe farre aboue this shalbe the rewarde that god will give you when he shall saie vnto you“Nowe, come ye to me you xp̃en com̃oners & chosen people, the wch have alwaies busyed yorselues in true labor and lawfull occupac̃on without subtiltie or piury, and haue kepte well yor roote of concorde, and have not vsed yor roote of tranquillitie, the fruite of com̃on wealth, contrary to my lawes and com̃andemts, but haue dilligentlie pared truly [blank MS.] the paring thereof for the releef of yor children and srvants, & haue not attempted anie lewde entrprice, the core thereof, {58} to my dishonor, or contrary to my ordynance.   And ye be the people that neủ vsed yor fruite of welthie tranquillitie, but wth their sawce, my dread.   Also ye hav vsed yor principall fruite to my honor, & therein haue you set yor core of lewde entrprice.   Nowe come and haue yor fynall rewarde.   For yor true worldly labor and busynes, ye shall haue ppetuall pleasure & case:  for yor good vnitie and comforte amongs yorselue, ye shalbe informed wth Angells, for that ye haue kept yor dutie.   ffor obedience to yor prince and supiors I shall make you princes & supiors to all men & princs vpon earth, for that ye haue set yor entrprice in mine honor, & nothing to the contrarie.   Therefore nowe I myself wilbe yor Captaine to entrprice for you the cellestiall citty, where ye shall surely enioye the fruite of tranquillitie ppetuall.   And for that ye haue vsed the sawce of my dreade, I shall set you where you shall from hensforth for eủ [blank in MS.] honor me, and neủ more painefullie to dreade me, nor nothing els, for ye be the loving stones wch reedifie my heavenly Jerusalem, in steed and place of the Angells wch fell wth Lucifer.” But what shall the great fame and soủaigne rewarde be, that if [sic] ye of the noblest of the Chevalrie shall ahue of god and man, for the well vsing of yor fruite of the wordlie psperitie in this realme of Englande?   Ye maie be sure yt all noble knights of yor greate fame will saie, these be the verie true xp̃en knights, of whome all we maie learne to dooe our duty in the defence of the faith of the curch of Christe, and in true redynes to sv̉e their Prince and defende him and his realme; let us followe the steps of them for thonnor of or church, and let the suretie of or prince, the welth of or com̃ons, and the psperitie of orself.   But what shall the soủaigne rewarde be that ye shall haue of god, when he shall saie vnto you, “Nowe come ye to me, my chosen knights, and I shall set you on the right hande my father as his faithfull and xp̃en knights that euer haue loved the {59} roote of truth, and for none wordlie cause would square therefrom.   And for that ye loved soe well truth, I shall ioine you to myself wth the indissolible knotte of pmanent love, for I am very truth whome ye have loved.   And for that you have vsed yor fruite of wordlie psperitie accordinge to my lawes and com̃andmts, Nowe shall ye haue & take the sweetnes of my psperitie celestiall, that my father hath given me, and is ordained for me and you as brethren before the constituc̃on of the worlde.   And for that you haue pared yor parings of defence as my verie knights to defend me and my church militante, and to be alwaies redy to defende yor kinge and his realme wth due obedience,   And oủ that haue gladlie defended the poore widdowes and ophanes and all other my poore people from wrongs and oppressions, and haue not applied yor defence to defend false quarrells and murtherers, theeves and extorc̃ons,  I shalbe yor ptector and defendor from all daungers & pills, in likewise as I ptected my chosen knight David.   And for that ye haue not vsed yor core of the fruite, wch is vain delectac̃on, wth yor fruite of wordlie psperitie, ye shall drink yor fill, and soe much yt ye will desire noe more, of delectable grace and mercye.   And for that ye haue vsed my sawce of my dreade wth yor fruite of worldlie psperitie, I shall set you in such psperous tryumphe, that all earthlie knights shall worship you, and all the Devills in hell shall dreade you.   And for that you have set yor core of delectac̃on in the fruite of my honor, I shall make you the honorable knights of Christe, for yebe they that haue wonne the victory against yor most mightie enemyes, the Devell, the fleshe, and the world, and them haue vtterly vanquished for ever,   Nowe take ye the places and roomes of victory wth theise knights, St. Dennys and St. Maurice, and his fellowes, where theis enemyes nor [blank: ? none] other shall haue powre in anie wise to assault you or attempt you, but shall flie from yor faces as the light doth from {60} the fervent winde.”—And ye vertuous Clergie, marke you well, what lawde of this world and rewarde of god ye shall haue, for yor pte to be done as is before rehearsed.   All the clergie of xp̃endome shall lawde you & saie, theis be they that are the verie Clarkes of Christs church, that cometh trulie by their promoc̃ons, wthout price, s̉vice or prayre, and be they which will not accepte nor take any pmoc̃ons but suche as they knowe themselues right able in vertue and conynge to serue and keepe, and that gladlie will refuse his own pmoc̃on to pmote a more able pson.   Theis be they that forget not to praie dilligentlie and devoutlie for the prince, the chevalrie, and the comynaltie of their realme,  by whome they haue their lyvings, and put not in oblivion their dutie for their founders, patrons & benefactors,   Let vs all take or light fo their Lanthornes, to serve god well.   But what worthie rewarde shall you haue of god when he shall saie vnto you—“Now come to my my blessed priests, on whose heades my holie vncc̃on was not loste, ye haue consecrated my bodie wth vnpoluted Soules, nothing defiled wth filthines of yor fleshe, ye haue troden vpon the steps of humylitie wth the yokes of Chastetie fastned in yor neckes, you haue kepte yor roote of peace full fervently in deede, word and though:  And oủ that ye haue devoutlie pared [? praied] that other maie do the same.   Ye haue vsed yor friute of good example to the vttermost pointe; without any blemish of yor core of vaine glorie, and that as well for charitie of yor neighboures, as for the welth of yor owne soules.   Ye haue plenteouslie distributed the parings of thencrease of vertue and conynge to the beste of yor powres, to the vniủsities and all other places where ye shall need, wthout promoc̃on of children being younge in vertue and conynge, and speciallie to such roomes as to vertuous and discreete clarkes belonge.   Ye haue tasted deeplie of the sawce of my dreade in all the vsing of yor fruite of good example, and haue {61} surelie fixed yor glorie only in the fruite of my honor.   Therefore I will make you my pfit preistes for eủ, after myne owne order.    And where ye by fortune haue consecrated my body, as in a shadowe, ye shall fullie vse it nowe as it is.    And I shall transforme the clerenes of yor faith to the most clerest fruic̃on of the godheade and constitute you for eủ fellowes to myne Apostles, whose steps ye haue followed.”    But the most xp̃en Kinge and most naturall Lorde, what praise, lawde and renowne shall you haue, aswell of all xp̃en princes as of their subiects, for the having of this tree of com̃on wealth in his realme in this manner twoe waies rooted, in himself and in his subiects, & plenteouslie gaished wth the rehersed fruits.    ffor where there was great praise o the com̃ons for ordering themself, soe that they be in much welthy tranquillity, the flowre of that praise muste needs sounde to yor Soủaigne Lo: for setting & keeping them in that good order.   And where yor chevalrie be in noble fame for soe doinge their dutie that they be in suche worldlie psperitie, howe muche more shall he ahue for whose lawdeand dreade and by whose example the principall doth it?   And if yor clergie haue greate lawdes for the setting and planting of such vertuous prelats and others in the church of Christe, wthin yor realme; but howe superabundantlie aboue all this shall yor praise, fame, lawde and renowne be for the vertuous and prudent ordering of yor most royall pson, and speciallie in yor yeres of florishing youth, whereby this noble tree of com̃on wealth is thus honorablie rooted and florished [? garnished] wth delicate fruits wthin this realme, and like to the tree of a xp̃en Kinge.    ffor the wch all other kings and princes shall wishe moste hartely to be in like case & condic̃on,  And at the laste, though for disdaine and highe minde they will not speake it, yet be ye sure they will well consider it, wth great feare and dreade to displease you.   And aboue all this, what glorious {62} rewarde shall ye haue of god, the Kinge of all kings, yor maker and redeem̉, when he shall saie vnto you “Nowe come vnto me, my xp̃en Kinge and knight; thou arte he that hast ruled my people accordinge to my will & pleasure; Thou hast delighted more [in] my love, the principall roote of the tree of com̃on welth of this realme, then thou haste in thy aucthority, powre and pleasure.   Thou hast known at all tymes to haue receaved poure, aucthoritie & regalitie only of me.   Thou hast mynistered to all my people thy subiects true Justice eủmore, and hast wiselie foreseene to whom thou hast com̃ytted thy great powre and high auchtoritie in that behalf and hast not dishonoured Justice for anie pfit, affecc̃on or cause touching thie self.   Thou hast not raised newe lawes and customes, for thie singuler pfit, to the com̃on hurte of thie subiects.    But if anie such before thy daies were araised, or anie good lawe subverted, Thou hast by thie charitable minde forborne thy Subiects and reduced all thinges to the old and good customes and constituc̃ons, and soe during thie lief hast kepte it.  Thou hast not also beleved the synister councell of anie pson that would induce the contrarie, but rather hast ponished such psons in example of other.   Thou hast set my church in good order, aswell in pmotinge of vertuous and conỹnge men, wthout anie pointe of symonie, and caused them to keepe their diocs and cures wthout disturbance of free elecc̃on.   Thou hast kept thy temporall subiects in a loving dread, and hast not suffred them, nor the mightiest of them, to oppresse the poore, nor yet wouldst suffer thine owne srvaants to extorte or wronge anie other of my people thy subiects, nor hast not suffred the nobles of thy realme nor anie other of thy subiects to [blank in MS.] as to ponishe and revenge their owne quarrells.   Thou hast supported the Comynaltie in a good tranquillitie, and hast not suffred hem to fall into Idlenes.   Thou hast bene true in thy deeds and pmises, and as {63} nighe as thou mightest hast caused all thy subiects to be the same,    And hast caused thy offic̉s and srvaunts to paie thy poore subiects trulie their duties.    Thou hast kepte them all from the highest degre to the lowest in a good concorde and vnitie amongs themselves.   And hast also kept them by thy greate study, wisdome and pollicy in good peace wth outwarde princes.   And thou arte that kinge wch haste eủ vsed the fruite of honorable dignity to my pleasure and contentac̃on, wthout any vnreasonable Elac̃on of the same, aboue thy lowest pte of thy reason, and therewth hast thou vsed the sawce of my dreade wth as meeke an harte as the poorest subiecte of thy realme.    And furthermore thou hast aboue all things Judged in execuc̃on of myne honor and to glorifie my name.   Wherefore come nowe to me and raigne wth me my glorious knight and xpen kinge, my deere son, my godhead, my singuler beloved brother by the manhood, my verie fellowe in creac̃on of thy Soule.   I shall anoynte the a Kinge eternall wth the holye Elie, that issued out of the bosome of my father, and crowne the wth the Crowne of my owne ymmortall glory and honor.   And nowe shall thy subiects, thou also and I, be made as one thinge, and shall alwaie be togither glorified wth the cleerenes of my father and soe raigne and contynue in the honor of my father for eủ, where shalbe contnuall lighte wthout darknes, ppetuall peace wthout warre or debate, and all dilecc̃on and swetnes wthout anie displeasure or grief; all reste and pleasure wthout labor and paine; all ioye and felicytie wthout any touche of sorrowe, and eủ to live wthout disease or sicknes; and our desyres to be vtterlie satisfied wthout study or busynes.   The sight of or father shalbe yor food to keepe vs from hungr and thirste;   His mantle of love shall soe wrappe vs, thatwe shall neủ feele heate nor colde.    And [whereas] before thou wert worshipped and served as a King with frayle and mortall people, thy Regally [sic: Regallity] {64} shall nowe be such that the Angells of heaven shall honor the as a King ymmortall and shall mynister vnto the.   And this tyme wth thee shal neủ passe nor waste.   And soe shalt thou for ever see me and honor me in thie self, and thy self in me.”   To the wch kingdome Christ Jesu, that bought vs all wth his pretious blood, bringe or said Soủaigne Lord and his true Subiects togithers wth all xp̃en people.   Amen.

            Thus endeth this simple and rude treatise called the tree of com̃on wealth, made by a pson most ignorant, and being in wordlie vexac̃on and trowble, also wth the sorrowfull and bitter remembrance of death, In the begynning whereof it is somewhat touched of the true remembrance of god, wch firste and above all thinges is to be done, as well wth kings and princes and [as] wth all other, and most speciallye wth the great kings and princs, for they haue greatest cause, for that, that they haue most of his giftes, And then a word or two haue bene spoken of certaine necessaries and behovefull ppties or condic̃ons in a kinge or prince to be had for his honor and suertie,  And then, following it, hath bene shewed of this tree of com̃on wealth, the wch tree must needs have fyve rootes to beare him surelie vprighte, as hath bene rehersed.   (That is to saie,) the first and principall roote the love of god, wch in any wise maie not be forborne to this tree of com̃on wealth in a xp̃en Realme.   And the fowre rootes be Justice, Truth, Concord & Peace.   And correspondent to theis fyve rootes his tree shall plenteouslie beare fowre noble fruites.   The most excellent and chief fruite is the honnor of god, wch springeth out of the roote of the true love of god, wthout the wch all thother be but little worth in a xpen realme.   Thother fowre fruites be theis—the fruite of honorable dignitie, only appropriated to the kinge and to his disposic̃on, wch groweth by the reason of the roote of Justice.   The Seconde is the fruite of good Example, right necessary for the clergie, and that {65} issueth out of the roote of peace.   The Thirde is Worldlie Pspitie, ordayned principallie for the Chevalry, wch springeth oute of the roote of truth.   The ffourth and the laste of theis fowre fruites, is the fruite of pfitable tranquillitie, full necessarie for the Comỹnaltie and groweth out of the roote of Concorde.   It is also remembred that theise fowre laste fruites haue fowre seủall paringes, right behoovefull to be pared and distributed to them that haue neede thereof.   ffirst, the paringe of the fruite of honorable dignitie, is compassion or pittie’ The paringe of the fruite of good example is thencrease of vertue and connyng.   The paringe of the fruite of worldlie psperitie is true defence.    The paringe of the fruite of pfitable tranquillity is tymely exercyse.   It hath bene also considered that theis fowre laste fruites haue fowre diủs pilous cores, wch in anie wise maye not be vsed wth theis fruits, but to be resrued for some other purpose.   The pilous core of the fruite of honorable dignity is vnreasonable Elac̃on.   The pestilenciall core of the fruite of good example is subtill glory or glorificac̃on.   The daugnerous core of the fruite of worldlie psperitie is vaine delectac̃on.   And the noysome core of the fruite of pfitable tranquillitie is lewde entrprice.   It hath also bene somewhat shewed howe theis fowre laste fruites msut be used by discrec̃on, and howe eủy pte shall be contented wth his owne pp fruite.   And when and howe all theis fowre fruits muste needs be vsed wth the sawce of the dreade of god.   And howe the same kinde of sawce will serve for all theis fowre fruites.   And how that sawce is a locr or a Jewce that issueth oute of the principall roote, wch is the love of god.   It hath bene moc̃oed [mencioned] that all theis fowre pilous cores rehersed, will right well agree wth the firste fruite, wch is the honor of god.   And that the same firste fruite is soe worthie and soe noble of his nature that he will suffer noe pilous core, nor noe other evill thinge to be within him, but will rather {66} converte all evell to good.   This is the fruite of wch all princes and other noblemen and vvnoble, the riche and the poore, the younge and the olde, the sicke and the whole, may vse at their libtie, wthout daunger, controllinge or disturbaunce.   And laste and fynallie it hath bene declared what rewarde, aswell worldlie as heavenly our Soủaige Lorde and eủy one of his subiects, that is to saie eủy pson in his degree, shall have for doing their duties, to kepe vp thisnoble tree of com̃on wealth, within this Realme of England, in a manner and forme aboue rehearsed.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

[FINIS.]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Charles Simms and Co., Printers, Manchester

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